Many Jews settled in Zambia in the late 1800's seeking economic prosperity. The earliest Jewish settlements in then-Rhodesia were located in Livingstone and Broken Hill. Jewish settlers were among the first Europeans to come to the country and were prominent in developing the cattle production and copper mining. Many early Jewish immigrants to Zambia came from Lithuania and Latvia. Although small in population, the Jewish community left a major mark on the economy and political life of Zambia, especially some of the early Jewish immigrants whose enterprise and initiatives laid the foundations for the modern-day economy.
By 1905, a permanent Jewish congregation had been established in Livingstone. The congregation of 38 members celebrated its first wedding in 1910. Brother Elie and Harry Susman, who arrived in 1900, were the first to develop large-scale wagon and river transport. They also pegged the Nkana copper mine which they later sold and is now the largest copper mine in Zambia. Sir Edmund Davis, Solly Joe and Sir Ernest Oppenheimer were prominent in developing copper mining while Abe Galaun, who arrived in Zambia just before the outbreak of World War II, became a dominant force in the country's meat and dairy business. Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda once dubbed him "the man who feeds the nation."
Over time, much of the Jewish community became very successful in the ranching industry and iron foundries. By 1921, 110 Jews lived in Rhodesia: 48 l in Livingstone, 11 in Broken Hill, and 25 in Lusaka. Several more Jewish refugees arrived to the country following the Holocaust. The population peaked at 1,200 in the mid-1950s. By this time, the center of Jewish life had shifted to Lusaka, the copperbelt center of the country.
During the 1960s, much of the Jewish population immigrated abroad; by 1968, the Jewish community had declined to 600 people.
Prior to Zambia’s independence in 1964, Jews were active in local government. Jews served as mayors in Livingstone, Broken Hill, Kitwe, and Luanshya. In the 1930s, Sir Roy Welensky was the leading political figure in Northern Rhodesian. From 1959 to 1962, M. G. Rabb was elected to the national legislative assembly. From 1962 to 1968, S. W. Magnus was a prominent member of the Zambian parliament. After 1968, Magnus was appointed a high court judge.
In 1978, the Council for Zambia Jewry was founded in Lusaka to oversee Jewish communal activities. The council provides assistance to political refugees and the poverty-stricken with medical and financial aid. The two synagogues located in Lusaka and Ndola (it has recently been closed due to a lack of congregants), but no rabbis are resident.
About 50 Jews remained in Zambia by 2004, most of them living in Lusaka. By 2013, less than 35 Jews remained but no rabbi directs the community anymore.
Israel and Zambia maintain full diplomatic relations. The Israeli ambassador in Harare, Zimbabwe represents Zambia.
It was announced in early September 2015 that Zambia would be opening it's first official embassy in Israel, further strengthening ties between the countries. A dedication ceremony for the opening of the embassy was attended by Zambian Foreign Minister Harry Kalaba, and the Director General of Israel's Foreign Ministry, Dore Gold. During his visit Kalaba held meetings with many high-ranking Israeli officials, and heads of companies interested in doing business with Zambia.