NEUMANN, ERICH (1905–1960), Israeli psychologist and psychoanalyst. Neumann, who was born in Berlin, studied analytical psychology under Carl Jung in Zurich. In 1934 he immigrated to Palestine, where he resumed his career as a psychoanalyst and therapist of the Jungian school. Later he was a frequent lecturer at the Eranos congresses in Ascona.
Neumann dealt with the inner crisis of modern man in two works, Tiefenpsychologie und neue Ethik (1949; Depth Psychology and a New Ethic, 1966) and Krise und Erneuerung (1961). Another major work, Ursprungsgeschichte des Bewusstseins (1949), first created a systematization of the human consciousness. The principal themes of his research into depth psychology were the world of archetypes, the psychology of creative man, the psychology of the female, and the archetypal in art. Other major publications were Umkreisung der Mitte, 3 vols. (1953–54); Die Grosse Mutter (1956; The Great Mother, 1955); Der schoepferische Mensch… (1959); Die archetypische Welt Henry Moores (1961; The Archetypal World of Henry Moore, 1959); Das Kind (1963); and essays in the Eranos-Jahrbuch, and psychological journals.