MUELLER, HEINRICH° (1900–?), last chief of the *Gestapo. Mueller joined the Bavarian police after serving as a much decorated NCO pilot during World War I. He had a specific expertise in Leftist movements, communist and Marxist, which became ever more valuable as the Nazis came to power and targeted these groups. When the Nazis came to power, *Heydrich was appointed Bavarian police chief and retained him as an expert on communism in the Bavarian political police even though Mueller in this period was not a Nazi but a member of the Bavarian Volkspartei. Mueller in 1933 joined the *SS and the SD (secret police), but became a Nazi Party member only in 1939. When Heydrich took charge of the Gestapo in 1936, Mueller, who had become one of his top aides, went with him to Berlin. He soon became chief of the executive of the office (Main Branch II). When the Security Police (Sipo) was organized, he was appointed chief of its political police section and, in effect, head of the Gestapo. He earned his stripes with the "Night of the Long Knives," the attack on Ernst Rohm. He continued to impress his superiors with the suppression of all organized opposition to the Nazi regime, which was, among other factors, due to Mueller's efficiency and ruthlessness, which included the application of torture on his victims. Mueller was involved in the hoax whereby "Polish"
H. Hoehne, Der Orden unter dem Totenkopf (1967); Institut fuer Zeitgeschichte, Gutachten des Instituts fuer Zeitgeschichte, 1 (1958), 169, 219, 232, 297; G. Reitlinger, Final Solution (19682), index; IMT, Trial of the Major War Criminals, 24 (1949), index. R. Hilberg, Destruction of the European Jews (1961. 1985, 2003), index. J. Delarue, The Gestapo (1964). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Aronson, Reinhard Heydrich und die Fruehgeschichte von Gestapo und SD; idem, Beginnings of the Gestapo System: The Bavarian Model in 1933 (1969); H.H. Wilhelm, "Heinrich Muller, in: I. Gutman (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (1990).