LUKÁCS, GEORG (György; 1885–1971), Hungarian philosopher, literary critic, and socialist. Born in Budapest into a family
Lukács returned to Hungary after World War II and was elected a member of Parliament. He was made president of the Academy of Sciences and professor of aesthetics and cultural philosophy at the University of Budapest. His unorthodox views led to frequent clashes with the Hungarian Communist Party and after the abortive rising in 1956, he was forced to hide in the Yugoslav embassy. He was restored to favor in the following year and was the recipient of many tributes and honors on his 80th birthday in 1965.
A prolific writer, Lukács was well known for his Marxist interpretations of literature. He was much influenced, however, by the humanitarian concept of Socialism as preached by the Jewish socialist, Moses *Hess. His writings, especially his autobiography Mein Weg zu Marx (1933), reflected his opposition to the militant revolution of the orthodox Marxists and advocated humanitarian Socialism based on respect for the individual. His study of Hess, Moses Hess und das Problem der idealistischen Dialektik, was published in 1926.
H. Althaus, Georg Lukács (1962); V. Zitta, Georg Lukács' Marxism, Alienation, Dialectics, Revolution (1964); F. Benseler (ed.), Festschrift zum 80. Geburtstag von Georg Lukács (1965); G. Lichtheim, G. Lukács (1971); G.H.R. Parkinson (ed.), Georg Lukács: The Man, His Work and His Ideas (1971).