KROTOSZYN (Ger. Krotoschin), town in the province of Poznan, Poland. The Jewish community was established in the 14th century, and by virtue of an ancient privilege allowing the Jews to trade, engage in crafts, and build houses, the community prospered. The privilege was reissued in 1638 by the owners of the town, and ratified and extended in 1648 and in 1673. In the course of the wars which ravaged Poland in the 17th century, the Jews suffered severely. Polish troops headed by the hetman *Czarniecky murdered 350 Jewish families out of 400 in Krotoszyn in 1656 during the war against the Swedes. Later the Jewish community recovered and its representatives filled important functions in the *Councils of Four Lands. Especially notable were Avigdor b. Abraham Katz, who in 1671 took part in the negotiations with Cristof Bressler of Breslau concerning the debt owed him by the Polish Jews, and Leibel
Krotoszyn was known as a center of Jewish learning and scholarship. Shabbetai *Bass, the rabbis Menahem Mendel b. Meshullam Auerbach, author of Ateret Zekenim, Moses Jekutiel Kaufmann, author of Leḥem ha-Panim, and Benjamin b. Saul Katzenelbogen were active there. In the 19th century the scholars David *Joel and Eduard *Baneth served as rabbis in Krotoszyn.
L. Lewin, in: MGWJ, 77 (1933), 464ff.; Posner, in: Aresheth 1 (1949), 260–78; D.D. Dąbrowska, in: BŻIH, 13–14 (1955). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Berger, Zur Geschichte der Juden in Krotoschin (1907).