KALDOR, NICHOLAS, BARON (1908–1986), British economist. Born in Budapest as Miklos Kaldor, he was educated there and then studied at the London School of Economics, where he taught economics from 1932. At the end of World War II, Kaldor worked for the United States government as chief of the economic planning staff of the Strategic Bombing Survey and from 1947 to 1949 was director of the research and planning division of the Economic Commission for Europe. In 1952 he became a lecturer at Cambridge University, where he was appointed professor of economics in 1966. Kaldor acted as adviser on taxation and fiscal matters to various governments and from 1964 to 1970 was special adviser to the chancellor of the exchequer of the Labour government on employment, development, and fiscal policy. Kaldor's numerous publications advocate an extension of state control and high taxation as the prerequisite for faster economic growth. He edited Essays on Economic Policy (1964) and contributed essays to National and International Measures for Full Employment (1950), an economic report to the United Nations. Kaldor's lecture, Accumulation and Economic Growth, was published in The Theory of Capital (1961), a major work of the International Economic Association. Kaldor's emphasis on the role of the manufacturing industry in the growth process was of considerable influence on the Labour government of 1964–70, but his impact waned with the rise of monetarism. He was awarded a life peerage in 1974.