Jewish RAF Special Operators in Radio Counter Measures
with 101 Squadron
(September 1943 - May 1945)
by Martin Sugarman
Much of the history of the secret telecommunications
war against the Germans during the Second
World War is still classified and shrouded in mystery, including
the Radio Counter Measures (RCM) of RAF Squadron 101. Originally founded
at Farnborough in 1917 as part of the RFC, Squadron 101 served as a
night-bomber squadron on the Western Front,  was demobilized after the Armistice and re-formed
at Bircham Newton in 1928. By 15 June 1943 it was based at Ludford Magna,
near Louth in Lincolnshire, as part of No. 1 Group, Bomber Command,
having already taken part, for instance, in the 1000-bomber raids on
Germany, attacks on Italian targets and, soon after, the raid on the
V1 sites at Peenemunde in August 1943.
At Ludford a far more dangerous task was assigned
the squadron. Many Allied bombers were falling victim to German night-fighters
guided by ground controllers scrutinizing radar screens.  An Allied counter-measure named
‘Window’ partially upset this, but the Luftwaffe responded by coordinating
the commentaries of several controllers at different locations, and
delegating overall command to a single master controller who guided
the night-fighters towards the Allied aircraft. The British Telecommunications
Research Establishment (TRE) at Malvern developed a response to this
that was tested by 101 Squadron. It was called ‘Airborne Cigar’, or
ABC, a battlefield version of ‘Ground Cigar’,  and its original code name was ‘Jostle’.  Using a receiver and three 50-watt  T.3160-type transmitters, the German VHF frequency
– and language - was identified and then jammed.  The jamming caused a loud and constantly varying
note running up and down the scale of the relevant speech channel. 
For this purpose, a German-speaking eighth crew member
was included in the crew of especially fitted Lancaster bombers. He
was known as the Special Duty Operator, ‘Spec. Op.’, or SO. All were
volunteers from various aircrew trades. Since the enemy often gave phoney
instructions to divert the jammers, it was essential that they know
German reasonably well. In addition, if the Germans changed frequencies
the SO would have to be skillful enough to do likewise.  The SO had to recognize German
codewords – such as Kapelle, for ‘target altitude’ - and log
any German transmissions for passing on to Intelligence at the post-flight
debriefing. Jewish veteran Flight Sergeant Leslie Temple recalls the
Germans trying to distract the SOs  by using screaming female voices or martial music. Some sources
allege that the SOs were trained in ‘verbal jamming’, that is giving
false information in German, but this was very little used. 
After trials on 4-6 September 1943, the first operational
use of ABC was on a raid over Hanover on 22 September, although other
sources mention the night of 7-8 October.  The system worked, but the first aircraft
using it was lost the following night on another raid. More Lancasters
were modified, and by the end of October most of the squadron had been
fitted with ABC. The only signs of special equipment were two 7-foot
aerials on top of the Lancaster fuselage, another below the bomb-aimer’s
window and a shorter receiver at the top-rear of the fuselage. Because
of the weight of the radio equipment and extra crew member the aircraft
had a reduced bomb load of 1000 lbs.
The SO sat just aft of the main spar on the port side
of the aircraft, immediately above the bomb bay, at a desk with three
transmitters and a cathode-ray screen. He was cut off completely from
the rest of the crew except for his intercom, and was in darkness with
no window to observe what was going on. His nearest human contact were
the boots of the mid-upper gunner, 4 feet away. In order to avoid distraction
the intercom had to be switched off, and only a red ‘call light’, operated
by the pilot, was available should there be an emergency.  Since there was no room for the SO in the heated forward section
of the Lancaster, he, like the mid-upper and rear gunners, had to wear
bulky electric suits, slippers and gloves, dangerous if a rushed exit
were required. At 20,000 feet over Europe in winter, temperatures often
fell to minus 50 C, so the SO would have to wear gloves even though
these made it difficult to operate switches. He would lose the skin
of his fingers if he attempted to touch metal without them.  It was common to have to pull off chunks of frozen condensation
from oxygen masks during the flight.  The concentrated work of jamming kept the
SO’s minds off minor discomforts for most of the flight. 
From October 1943 until the end of the war all main-force
attacks on German targets were accompanied by Lancasters of 101 Squadron,
sometimes up to twenty-seven in one raid. The ABC aircraft were stationed
in pairs at regular intervals in the bomber stream so that if one were
shot down, other parts of the stream would still be covered.  As losses mounted it was thought
that German fighters were homing in on ABC aircraft, but no definite
evidence for this has been found. However, on 18 November Flying Officer McManus’s Lancaster was brought down over Berlin and examined by
the Germans, so it is possible that German ground stations knew enough
to vector their fighters onto the Lancasters when ABC was transmitting,
making them more vulnerable than other aircraft.  SO veteran Ken Lewis, DFM,  described how the SOs were nicknamed ‘Jo’s
or ‘Jonah’s’ by the other crew members, alluding to the storm unleashed
by the biblical character on the ship in which he was a passenger. On
the other hand, the losses could have been caused by the rise in 101
participation on raids.
The Special Operators included a high proportion of
German-speaking Jewish refugees who were especially at risk if captured,
as were any of their surviving families in the Reich. One source tells
of a crew member who committed suicide when captured by the Germans,  perhaps for this reason. There were also British and Commonwealth
Jewish RAF personnel, many of whom spoke German or Yiddish at home.
Special Operator 1811224 A. J. H. Clayton was captured on the night
of 30 March 1944 when his Lancaster was shot down and was probably tortured
to death for information on the SOs.  Some allege that the SOs were never to be questioned by the
rest of the crew about their work. 
The Squadron’s casualties were enormous. Between 18
November 1943 and 24 March 1944, for example, seventeen aircraft of
101 Squadron were lost in battles over Berlin. In the Nuremberg raid,
five crew members of one Lancaster were lost, including Flying Officer
Norman Marrian, the SO, who was badly wounded by friendly fire from
a Halifax. He had baled out, but was found dead, suspended by his harness
from a tree, two days later,  according to a survivor, Sergeant
Don Brinkhurst, mid-upper gunner.  Sergeant Luffman describes how an SO’s parachute failed to
open fully and he died of his injuries.  A further four planes were lost over Nuremberg, making six
in all, almost one-third of the surviving Squadron. An additional five
were lost in the successful raids running up to D Day over France. But
only one was lost on D Day itself, when twenty-four Lancasters of 101
helped deceive the enemy into thinking the landing was to take place
in the Pas de Calais by forming an ABC barrier between the Normandy
beaches to the south and the German fighter bases in Holland and Belgium
to the north. Other aircraft simulated airborne landings elsewhere and
jammed enemy radars. Countless lives were saved in this ‘Battle of the
Ether’, fought by a squadron of which the motto was appropriately Mens
Agitat Molem, ‘Mind over matter’. 
After D Day, 101 continued using ABC in raids on German
reinforcements, V1 launch sites and German industry. Losses continued,
with six Lancasters destroyed over Brunswick in August 1944. On 25 April
1945, in their last mission, twenty Lancasters helped attack Hitler’s
last redoubt at Berchtesgaden. Since October 1943, Squadron 101 flew
2477 sorties with ABC from Ludford Magna. They dropped 16,000 tons of
bombs between January 1944 and April 1945 alone and flew more bombing
raids than any other Lancaster squadron in Group 1, losing 1094 crew
killed and 178 POWs – the highest casualties of any squadron in the
Jewish Special Operators
Flight Sergeant (later Warrant Officer) 2209350 Peter
D. Kaye, a non-Jewish SO veteran from Wirral whose tour finished on
30 June 1944, explained that at any one time there might be thirty-three
SOs – one for each Lancaster in the squadron – but that many more would
have passed through, as casualties occurred or tours of duty finished
– making perhaps as many as 150 or 200. He told the author  that he knew three Jewish Special Operators. One was 1398898
Reuben (later Ron) ‘Herky’ Herscovitz/Herscovitch, also known as Hurst,  who died in August 1997 aged seventy-five. His Jewish chaplain
card states he was born on 20 August 1922, the son of Mr J. Herscovitz
of 53 Bellott Street, Manchester 8, was married to Phyllis and that
he had volunteered on 11 November 1941. Another was Flight Sergeant
John Hertzog, also known as Hereford. A third was Flight Sergeant G.
P. (?) Herman. The AJEX museum has 60,000 - about 95 per cent - of the
cards relating to British Jews serving in the Second World War. These
were compiled and updated by Jewish chaplains throughout the War, and
information is still added as it comes in.
Before one mission, Special Operator J. A. Davies,
a life-long friend of Herscovitz (a Yiddish speaker at home)  asked him why he carried a
pair of civilian shoes slung around his neck on each of his thirty-six
missions, and was told, ‘My friend, if you are shot down, you will either
be killed or taken to a proper prison camp under the control of the
Geneva Convention. I am a Jew, and as the Herrenvolk would like to liquidate
my race, I aim to get away from the wreckage as soon as possible. How
can I possibly do that in heavy fur-lined flying boots?’ 
John Davies recalls how  ‘Ron and I first met at Hixon in Staffordshire
and were designated SOs and sent to101 Squadron together. Seven young
sergeants were deposited outside the guardroom at a dark, snowbound
airfield at Ludford – Bull, Bryant, Davies, Dockerty, Fergus, Neille
and Herky. Within a few weeks Neille left, Fergus was sick, Bull and
Bryant were dead and I was a POW after two missions. In the meantime
and without any warning, one night, on 15 February 1944, mine and Herky’s
names appeared on Battle Orders for the big raid on Berlin, with 891
aircraft. It was frightning, but Herky showed no emotion and indeed
injected a spirit of optimism on life in general. He wrote for
Davies’s book, ‘An hour before take-off, behind us lay the ops meal
with its privileged eggs, and some stressful hard to kill hours in the
hut during which we smoked, read magazines, talked or wrote letters,
the while keeping private fears to ourselves. Jim Davies wrote to his
parents…an emotional letter of apology. Four days later on 19 February
we flew to Leipzig and Jim failed to return. When it was clear the aircraft
was overdue beyond hope … I left the Operations Room, went back to hut
8 and told the others. The next day I posted Jim’s letter to his parents
in Wales and watched as two police Corporals packed his kit. At 2345
hours that night I took off for Stuttgart.’
Davies continued to describe how Herscovitz volunteered
for a second tour at the height of the bomber offensive – a courageous
act given the low survival rate of SOs. He was not given a medal, but
was an inspiring member of the bomber crew and, aware of the consequences
should he be captured, was determined to have personal revenge on a
system he despised. He had been in a reserved occupation on a Zionist
Kibbutz farm in Somerset, but went back to Manchester to join the RAF.
In Davies’s words: ‘he was an incredibly brave man and the only member
of the Squadron I wanted to contact after the war. I searched but failed.
Then in the late 1940s, on an escalator in Wood Green Underground, he
was coming down and I was going up. There was instant recognition and
shouts of joy and our friendship lasted without a break until he died
… After the war he became a much respected expert in civil aviation,  but, conscious of his lack of a formal secondary education,
at the age of seventy, he entered St Cross College, Oxford, to do a
PhD in History. He died just before the awards ceremony. Later at the
College we held a ‘Celebration of his Life’ and it was my privilege
to speak of his wartime heroism; he was my hero in war and peace.’
Jewish RAF veteran Aubrey Wilson was a close friend
of Herscovitz after the war and remembers some of the stories he had
recounted.  In
a letter to the present writer Wilson recalled one incident described
to him. ‘On the way back from one raid, the crew heard an object rolling
about in the fuselage. Ron [Herscovitz] was sent to investigate and
discovered one of the high-powered target flares (a photoflash) rolling
loose and coming apart. Ron had to cradle this in his arms for several
hours and on return carry it gingerly down the steps of the Lancaster
and hand it to a WAAF armourer to disarm. He described the sheer horror
of … holding a highly volatile explosive device on a long and shaky
journey at 12,000 feet, which, had it gone off, would have blown the
aircraft apart. Ron said that it went off minutes later on the runway,
after the WAAF heard it make a strange sound and threw it away. In another
incident Ron described how his intense fear over targets was amplified
as he could understand precisely what the German fighter pilots and
controllers were saying – they shouted that they could see a certain
Lancaster and were going in to attack, while Ron would sit and await
a stream of machine-gun bullets to cut him apart or a cannon-shell to
explode in his aircraft. When it did not, he knew someone else had bought
it. Constantly being aware that you are a target in this way must have
been almost unbearable.’
Herscovitz himself recounted  how Air Vice Marshall Saundby
once gave a handshake to each man as they entered the debriefing room
after a night raid. When Ron came, the Air Vice Marshal was so taken
aback at such a small chap in flying kit that he looked down and gently
patted him on the head.
Another comrade, Bruce Lewis, remembers the following:  ‘When I had joined the RAF … at Padgate camp with an odd assortment
of fellow civilians … the first person who had spoken to me was a little,
thick-set man with black curly hair. Clutching a battered fibre suitcase
in one hand he had raised a clenched fist under my nose and said: “Greetings
Comrade!” He was Ron Herscowitz … . All his family had disappeared into
Nazi camps. The best way he could think of getting back at the Germans
was to join Bomber Command. We had gone different ways during training,
but now here he was again, a “Special” at 101 [Ludford]. He had already
established himself as a “squadron character” with a boisterous sense
Group Captain John Rees said that not only were most
SO’s Jewish,  but
that they formed a separate cohort at the base due to the secret nature
of their task, and constituted a sort of a ‘group within the group’.
Many had come via Palestine as volunteers and helped improve the German
of the non-Jewish SOs. Most changed their second names. Felix ‘King’,  for example, who reached the Squadron via Palestine and Canada,  was remembered by a fellow crew member - 1084425 Flight Sergeant
Ken Fitton - as being nicknamed ‘Happy’ and of ‘living up to his name’.
Ken Fitton recalls that his family had had an optics or lens business
in London, but that the crew made no effort to learn his real name,
aware that in the event of capture they would then be unable to give
any information about him or, indeed, his work.  King told him he had been
born in Berlin, that his father had been arrested by the Gestapo and
never seen again, and that his mother had taken the rest of the family
to Palestine where he joined the RAF as soon as he was of age.
Brookes  rightly points out that German Jews were ‘taking a treble
risk … . They were SOs, bombers and Jewish - very brave men.’ Their
very attempts to conceal their origins makes identifying Jewish SOs
difficult today, however. In addition, many remain keen not to reveal
their true background, having first been excluded, humiliated and expelled
from their countries of birth and then, on arriving poverty-stricken
in Britain, been mistrusted and interned before being allowed to serve
only in non-combattant units such as the Pioneer Corps. Only later were
they permitted to strike back at their oppressors - in many cases the
murderers of their families - by enlisting in fighting units. Such experiences
have in some cases left their emotional mark to this day. Once in 101,
they soon integrated and became close friends with their crew-mates,
even though they arrived later than many others who had trained together,
and had in some cases already had special training for secret work.  Few if any questions were asked about religious affiliation.
1893650 Flight Sergeant Leslie Temple,  born in 1925 to Jane and Solomon
in Stepney, joined the RAF in January 1943 aged eighteen, but had served
in the Air Training Corps from the age of fourteen. He received initial
air training at Bridgenorth in Shropshire on De Haviland Dominees and
Proctors, radio training at Madley, acclimatization on B17s at Sculthorpe
in Norfolk, and a Lancaster conversion course at Lindholme in Yorkshire,
before being sent as a full Flight Sergeant aged nineteen to join 101
Squadron at Ludford. He had learnt German at school and spoke fluent
Yiddish at home, but the SO work was so secret that he had no idea until
he arrived in Ludford why he had been sent there. He completed thirty
missions between 22 June (against the Rheims marshalling yards) and
28 October 1944 (Cologne). Others from his still-prized log book include
Essen, Frankfurt, V1 sites, troop concentrations after D Day, Caen,
Hamburg and Scholven.
SOs worked concentratedly on the journeys out and
home for several hours, but over the target could only watch. Once the
bombers were near the target it was obvious to the enemy where they
were going, so jamming was superfluous. Leslie Temple explained that
the rear gunners in ABC Lancasters had heavier machine guns than usual,
because the planes were especially vulnerable transmitting over enemy
His worst moment was over Kiel on 23 July 1944, ‘a
date that will live in my mind forever … . We took off from Ludford
just before midnight, at 2355, for the heavily defended German naval
base at Kiel. The Lancaster was blown slightly off course over the North
Sea, so the bomb aimer had to ask that they fly round for a second time
over the target to ensure accuracy – which was always extremely hazardous.
As we did not jam over the actual target I could watch everything from
the astrodome. There was a solid curtain of bursting, hellish flak,
a wall of searchlights across the sky, other bombers all around waiting
to release their bombs and predatory German night-fighters spitting
cannon fire. Finally we dropped our bombs on target, but were suddenly
nailed by a master searchlight on the way out. Immediately a dozen others
“coned” us at 20,000 feet, extremely heavy German flak opened up and
we were showered with shrapnel which simply passed through the airframe;
our two port engines burst into flames … . I feared the worst, as we
could not bale out over the North Sea at night … . Our quick-thinking
Canadian skipper (Eric Nielsen, who was given the DFC for this operation)
nosed the Lancaster down and pulled out of the beam at 5000 feet. The
pilot and flight engineer managed to extinguish the flames over the
North Sea, using the internal extinguishers, and despite no power for
the directional equipment because of the two cut engines, our skilled
navigator used his sextant and stars training to get us home on two
engines. We crash landed at Woodbridge in Suffolk, a special crash-landing
base, at about 4 am, with over 100 holes in our Lancaster. After debriefing
I laid on my bed and could not stop shaking for twelve hours. The MO
said the best cure was simply to get back up again soon – and of course
we did. No counselling in those days.’
Some of the dangers experienced by SOs were common
to all fliers, as Leslie reports. ‘We were taking off for a raid on
the Ruhr at Volkel [14 August 1944]. As we tore down the
runway, our starboard outer engine cut out. We had a full bomb bay,
full fuel tanks and full boost on the engines for take off. Our pilot
and engineer laid hard back on the stick together and we cleared the
runway by just 50 feet. Over the North Sea we dropped our bombs and
went home as an aborted sortie.’ ‘Sometimes we had to rendezvous with
800 or 1000 other aircraft over England and there were many dreadful
accidents. I was horrified to witness one of my best pals from Barnsley
(Jack Whitely), killed in a mid-air collision [23 September 1944]. I
still have the letters from his family explaining when his body was
washed up near Felixstowe. I stayed in contact with them for years after,
as they treated me like a son. Over the target there was often confusion
and some aircraft were hit by friendly bombs from above them. Landing
at night was hazardous, as aircraft came in very close behind each other.
… But we were young and fatalistic and made jokes about dying.’ ‘I put
my faith in the Almighty and recited the Shema [the Jewish creed]
before every take-off; I am sure this carried me through. I count my
blessings that I survived.’
After serving in 101 Leslie was told to take a long
leave and thereafter worked as ground crew. He married Cynthia in 1950
and had a large family, now living in Ilford as an active member of
the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women, and the101 Squadron
Association and Bomber Command Association. Nightmares concerning his
missions began some years after the war and still recur. His brother
Arthur (Queens Royals) was captured at Abbeville before Dunkirk and
posted as missing for some months. He was a POW for five years.
Leslie - who has the 1939-45 and France and
Germany Stars and War Medals – is unfortunately ineligible for the Aircrew
Europe Medal because he, like many others, began bombing later than
others in the war. The cut-off date for the medal is the beginning of
June 1944, probably due to a misguided political decision connected
with Bomber Harris’s campaign. As a result, many veterans wear the Aircrew
Europe Medal who never flew under such life threatening circumstances
as Leslie and his comrades.
Flight Sergeant Gerhard ‘Harry’ Heilig was
born 19 April 1925 to a prominent Jewish journalist from Vienna, one
of the earliest held by the Gestapo in a concentration camp following
the Anschluss. He spent thirteen months in the camp and escaped to England
just two weeks before war broke out. His mother was Jewish and from
Hungary. Gerhard arrived on a kindertransport in December 1938, went
to a Quaker school in Yorkshire and studied to be a telephone engineer
in Leeds and London. He volunteered for aircrew in early 1943 because,
as he says, ‘I was only too aware that Britain had saved my life, …
and I wanted to put a nail in Hitler’s coffin’.  As an eighteen-year-old ‘Friendly Alien’ he had to make a
special application to the Secretary of State for Air, and on 17 July
was posted to the Initial Training Wing (ITW) at Bridgenorth, Shropshire.
He was trained as a wireless operator at Madley (Number 4 Radio School)
on De Havilland Rapides and Proctors, and then sent in March 1944 with
John Hertzog to 214 Squadron (100 Bomber Group) at Sculthorpe to work
in Radio Counter Measures. They were told that the whole thing was so
secret that not even the CO knew what it was about. He remembers two
other Jewish SOs, named Isaacs and Lander. On arrival he and Hereford
were called to the adjutant’s office and advised that their German names
would put them at risk if they were captured. Hertzog took the name
‘Hereford’, but Heilig was reluctant. ‘First, they would have to shoot
me down, … second, I would have to survive … and third, they would have
to catch me. … I decided to follow my father’s example when arrested
by the Nazis … and bear my name with honour and trust to providence.’  The old hands welcomed them as they trained-up,
but when, after one month, they were about to leave the base for some
leave, they were called urgently to the CO and told they must go on
the Squadron’s first operational flight in its new role, in B17 ‘Flying
Fortresses’. His was SR386 BU-N. Heilig was ‘particularly happy to be
able to deliver my own worst regards in person on Hitler’s birthday’,
20 April,  on the
Paris rail-marshalling yards at La Chapelle. The flight, which took
place a day after his nineteenth birthday during the prelude to D Day,
was uneventful. The next day they took their planned week’s leave.
On 16 May he moved to Oulton, from where he
took part in raids dropping ‘Window’ - aluminium foil - to deceive German
radar and give real raids on Germany a clear run while German night-fighters
chased them. On one raid his crew used window to attract German fighters
into an ambush by waiting Mosquitoes. On another they forced German
fighters up in bad weather causing many of them to crash on landing.
In July 1944, after his tenth operation, Heilig, with Hereford and RAAF
SO ‘Bluey’ Glick, who was also Jewish, was posted to Ludford with 101
Squadron to fly as an SO in Lancasters. Hereford writes: ‘I was friendly
with Glick, and as only service personnel living in London were allowed
there on leave, Bluey came as my “cousin” to my home in Finchley. …
On 19 September 1944 I flew to Rheydt in the Ruhr (“Happy!”) Valley.
The Master Bomber was Guy Gibson VC of “Dambusters” fame. I heard his
last words – “We are going down to 500 feet”. The Deputy Master Bomber
then lost contact. Gibson and his crew were killed on that raid.’ 
Heilig records that after the bombs had been
dropped his crew often threw out bundles of propaganda leaflets. He
discovered only later that his father, by then working for the American
OSS propaganda department, had actually written some of them, and was
delighted with the coincidence.
Gerhard Heilig remembers bringing back from
one raid two pieces of German anti-aircraft shell which had pierced
the fuselage a yard from where he sat. On 18 August 1944 over Sterkrade
in the Ruhr the starboard inner engine was shot out of action. On 5
September over Le Havre they were hit again by shrapnel, and once more
on 12 September over Frankfurt when the starboard inner engine was hit
and cut out. On 5 September they had to return with their bombs owing
to poor visibility over Le Havre, and the heavy load caused brake failure
on landing. As they headed for the wreckage of an old aircraft at the
runway end at an alarming speed, Heilig rolled himself up into a ball
for a belly landing with the undercarriage up. On halting, the crew
ran for the aft door and exited, but the plane did not explode. He later
found he had grabbed two parachutes and helmets, calculating in a split
second that the paperwork resulting from the loss of such items would
Flight Sergeants Heilig and Hereford completed
their thirty missions on 25 October 1944. Heilig was posted to Transport
Command in the Far East until 1947, became a pilot and returned to work
in Austria in 1965 where he now lives with his family.
Graham Boytell, an SO from Australia,  recalls SO Hans Schwartz, a German-Jewish refugee who had
been ordered to change his name by the RAF before being allowed on operations,
and was therefore known as Henry Blake. Graham, who met him in 1944,
vividly recalls Hans’s joy in the mess at Ludford at being on Battle
Orders for the night of 12 August. ‘I have never seen anyone so happy
to be going on ops as Henry was that night. It was the Brunswick raid
and his first. Sadly he failed to return.’ Flight Sergeant Bob Hopes
remembers Schwartz as ‘a most pleasant lad with dark, curly hair’, and
suspected from his looks that he was ‘not really a Blake’. 
Navigator Ken Scott first met Augustus Tomachepolsky,
known as ‘Tomo’ to his crew mates, at the No. 2 Squadron ‘A’ Flight
6 ITW (Initial Training Wing) at Aberystwyth where they both graduated
in May 1942. They went on to Anstey, but failed the flying course and
met up again at Ludford in October 1943. In November witnesses saw the
rear of Tomo’s Lancaster torn apart by night-fighter cannon shells as
it plunged in flames into the suburbs of Dusseldorf. Three crew members
survived as POWs, but Tomo was killed. Ken Scott describes Tomo as ‘a
remarkable chap, … an accomplished artist who drew amazing portraits
of his comrades. His family were in the fur business. I was on the same
raid; we took off a few minutes earlier at 1700 hrs. I noted in my log
book four-tenths cloud, leaflets carried, uneventful trip, duration
4 hrs 35 mins. … Such are the fortunes of war.’ 
Pilot Officer Adrian Marks  (RAAF), another Jewish SO, vividly remembers the Nuremberg
raid of 30-1 March 1944: ‘At briefing we were advised by the met. officer
we would have some cloud cover to and from the target. But it was a
bright full moon with little cloud cover. Our usual aircraft, G for
George, was not serviceable at the time, so were allocated another Lancaster,
J2, whose crew were on leave. Once airborne we found we had a real
problem. The aircraft could not gain altitude at the speed of the bomber
stream, so we had a choice: to keep up with the others and be well below
their height, or to climb to the height of the others, but fall well
behind and risk arriving over the target alone. The crew discussed the
options over the intercom and agreed to gain the operational altitude
of the stream rather than have bombs from our own aircraft falling around
us and possibly on us, and to accept the risk of being alone to and
from the target. Some twenty-five or so minutes prior to the time the
raid was scheduled to begin, I picked up on my ABC receiver the message,
“Achtung Nuremberg”, the target having been identified. I warned my
crew that we could expect more night-fighters than usual. As usual it
was a zig-zag course to and from the target, and I often wondered if
someone back home had been careless in their conversation and that it
had been picked up by an unfriendly person and made known to the Germans.
We arrived over Nuremburg some 20-25 minutes late, all by ourselves,
but at the correct altitude. The city appeared to be on fire in several
areas, as I could see the target once the bomb doors were open. We dropped
our bombs and got the hell out of the area and headed for home. At no
stage did we encounter any enemy aircraft, despite the fact that ninety-five
aircraft did not return that night. It was the heaviest loss recorded
by RAF Bomber Command on any one night.’  Of 101’s twenty-six aircraft, six failed
to return and one crash-landed at Welford, Berkshire. Forty-seven men
were killed, eight captured and one - Sergeant Don Brinkhurst – escaped. 
SO Sergeant Henry van Geffen  mentions in his diaries an
SO Sergeant Rudy W. Mohr or Mahr, who was probably Jewish and who was
killed on 7 March 1945 over Dessau while bombing the railways supplying
the Junkers jet-engines testing base. Another name is Pilot Officer
O. Fischel/Fischl, killed in action with the crew of Pilot Officer McConnell
in Lancaster III DV-236 SR-G-George on 15 February 1944 over Berlin,
five of the eight crew baling out and becoming POWs.  Chorley says the records show
that Fischl was not one of those killed, as is confirmed by his Jewish
chaplain’s card at the AJEX Museum. 
Another Jewish SO was 1895899 Flight Sergeant Wolf
Herman Engelhardt, born in Leipzig, of Polish nationality, on 9 November
1920,  who escaped
via Berlin to England on 3 April 1939. His Jewish chaplain index card
says he volunteered for Special Duty on 24 May 1943 as AC2, but was
later promoted to Flight Sergeant. Details of which chaplains he met
are given, and the fact that his next-of-kin was his brother at 9 Thirlecroft
Road, Horsham, Surrey. It also states that he was killed in action on
28 July 1944 in Lancaster III LM462 SR-V2, having taken off at 2145
hrs for a raid over Stuttgart. He is buried at Rebrechien, 11 kms northeast
of Orleans, in a communal grave with others of the crew. When his brother,
Stephen Ellis, recently asked the Commonwealth War Graves Commission
to add a Star of David to the grave they declined, but they did allow
him to add some Hebrew lettering.  The rest of the crew details are also known. 
Jewish personnel in other electronic
Another counter-measure involving German-speaking
Jewish refugees, code-named ‘Corona’, involved the use of RAF ground
listening and broadcasting stations in England from which German-speaking
RAF men and WAAF women broke into German fighter-controllers’ radio
frequencies and broadcast false instructions to the fighters.  On one occasion,  over Ludwigshaven on 17 November 1943, a broadcast in German
ordering ‘All butterflies go home’, caused many of the German fighters
to land.  Only
one British bomber was lost that night.
J. A. Davies describes how the ABC teams were monitored
from a ground station at Kingsdown near Canterbury, a major RCM centre,
staffed mainly by German-Jewish refugees.  Former RAF Flight Sergeant 1456538 Sidney
Goldberg of the RAF ‘Y’ Service (Mobile Field Units) radio deception/interception
teams, who served in North Africa, Sicily and northwest Europe, and
is at the time of writing an active AJEX member, knows that many RAF
squadrons employed German linguists in activities such as intelligence
gathering and Radio Counter Measures and that a high percentage were,
like him, Jewish. They included German refugee volunteers, German Jews
from Palestine - he remembers Flight Sergeants Freddie Adler, J. Rosenthal,
Herman, Kon and Englard - and British Jews who knew enough Yiddish to
understand German. Dozens of other Jews worked on Radio Counter Measure
Aileen Clayton names WAAF Flight Officer Rosemary
E. Horstmann (perhaps also known as Mrs H. Waters) and RAF Flight Sergeant
R. Fresco-Cuba.  Peter Leighton-Langer  names WAAF Edith Perutz (later Smith), born
1918 in Vienna, and recalls many others. Gerhard Heilig remembers meeting
a Czech WAAF sergeant while on leave at an émigré club in London who
told him how false instructions in German were transmitted to the enemy
at her ground interception station. One evening they guided a lost German
pilot to the Woodbridge airfield in Essex and found he was flying a
Junker 88 with the latest equipment - a major catch for British Intelligence. 
Former RAF wireless mechanic John Marks 3005273, born
in Shoreditch on 28 July 1924, served with Sid Chandler, a fellow Jewish
operator, at No. 80 signals wing at Sizewell, Suffolk (now the power
station). They operated diesel-powered transmitters from horse-drawn
caravans for three shifts of eight hours, recognizing and jamming German
fighter-aircraft communications over the Ruhr, a major Bomber Command
target. Sizewell was the closest mainland point to the Ruhr industrial
RAF Flight Sergeant Jack Burston  served in a Special Intelligence
Unit (SIU) made up of German speakers, based first at Beachy Head, then
the Isle of Wight and later off Normandy on D-Day, intercepting enemy-aircraft
and naval radio traffic. In his small unit alone were eight Jewish personnel,
besides himself, some of them from Palestine.
Jock M. Whitehouse, historian of 214 Squadron, confirms
that many other squadrons had German-speaking crew members engaged in
RCM against enemy night fighters. In the case of 214, equipped with
Boeing Flying Fortress IIIs, many were Jewish. 
The death on active service of the British-born radar
and electronics expert, Alan D. Blumlein, killed in a Halifax bomber
crash on 7 June 1942 with two colleagues, was described in The Daily
Telegraph as a national loss. Air Chief Marshall Sir Phillip Joubert
described it as a catastrophe for the war effort, and Sir Archibald
Sinclair, Secretary of State for Air, wrote that ‘it would be impossible
to over-rate the importance of the work on which they were engaged’,
which had undoubtedly saved thousands of lives. 
R. V. Jones  pays tribute to the many Jewish refugee scientists
who contributed to the electronic war against the Nazis. One of them,
RAF Flight Sergeant Jack Nissenthall, volunteered to take part in the
attempt to break into the German radar station at Pourville near Dieppe
in August 1942. He was accompanied by a dozen Canadian snipers with
orders to shoot him if he was in danger of capture. The raid achieved
an important part of its mission, but only Jack and one other made it
back to Newhaven. His courage was recognized only many years after the
war, by which time it was considered too late for a decoration to be
Among many Jewish cryptographers at SOE (including
Leo Marks, Chef de Codage in the French Section) and code breakers
at Bletchley Park, the code and cypher centre which eventually broke
the German ‘Enigma’ codes, were Professor Max Newman of St John’s College,
Cambridge, the mathematician who developed the ‘Colossos’ computer which
penetrated the notorious Lorenz codes of the German High Command.  There was a large Jewish input in both radio interception
and code breaking at Bletchley, and the AJEX archive contains a large
section on this which is to be researched for future publication.
There is little doubt that outside the small
circle of 101 Squadron veterans, few know of the important and dangerous
work of the Special Operators and their Lancaster crew comrades, less
still the role of the Jewish SOs. It is to be hoped that this study
will bring deserved if belated recognition to this brave band of brothers.
I would like to thank the following former SOs of
101 Squadron: Flight Sergeant Graham Boytell RAAF (of Australia), Dr
(Flight Sergeant) Jim Davies, Flight Sergeant Ken Fitton, Flight Sergeant
Henry van Geffen, Flight Sergeant Peter Holway, Flight Sergeant Bob
Hopes, Wireless Operator Peter D. Kaye, Pilot-Officer Guy Meadows, Group
Captain John Rees, Flight Sergeant Ken Scott and Dr (Flight Sergeant)
I would like to thank a number of other individuals
for their help and encouragement in completing this study. The staff
of the reading Room at the Imperial War Museum, Lambeth, of the Public
Records Office, Kew and of Battersea Park Library in Wandsworth have
been particularly helpful. Gabriel Kaufman, former National Chair of
AJEX, started me off on the trail of the Jewish SOs of 101 Squadron,
RAF. I am grateful also to Stephen Ellis, brother of the late Flight
Sergeant Wolf Engelhardt, RAF, killed in action over France as an SO
on 28 July 1944. Sydney Goldberg, former National Vice Chair of AJEX
and RAF ‘Y’ Service veteran, put me in touch with the veterans of RCM.
I am grateful for the personal contributions of Gerhard Heilig of Vienna,
John Herzog/Hereford of Faversham, RAF radar veteran John Marks, Mrs
Shirley de Solla (widow of SO veteran Henry de Solla) of Enfield and
Leslie Temple of Ilford.
SOs identified as Jewish in chaplain cards or elsewhere. 
Addendum – Henry Morris,We Will Remember Them– an Addendum (London 1994).
AJEX – Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women
Australian Jewry Book of Honour - G. Pynt,
The Australian Jewry Book of Honour (Australia 1973).
Canadian Jews at War – Canadian Jews at
War (Canadian Jewish Congress, Montreal 1947 and 1948).
WWRT – Henry Morris, We Will Remember Them
- The British Jewry Book of Honour of WW2 (London 1989).
Flight Sergeant Auer, possibly 788094 H. Auer, known
as ‘Mish’, originally of Czech 310 Squadron, for whom there is an AJEX
Flight Sergeant R. Blitz RAF (information from Gp.
Capt. John Rees)
J96217 Flight Sergeant Murray Cohen RCAF, born 1921
in Toronto, son of Aaron later of Chicago, volunteered 1941, with three
brothers in the forces, captured on his fifteenth mission, 29-30 December
1943, in Lancaster III LM371 SR-T over Berlin. Crashed at Schillerslage,
4 kms northwest of Burgdorf and sent to Stalag 4B. POW No. 269756. Information
from Canadian Jews at War 120.
1800983/187083 Flight Sergeant, later Pilot Officer, Henry John de Solla,
husband of Shirley and son of B. de Solla, 52 Hainault Court, Forest Rise,
London E17, volunteered 6 January 1942. Information from Leslie Temple,
AJEX card and correspondence with family.
Flight Sergeant R277148 John O. S. Fochs or Fuchs
or Fosch, RCAF. Information from AIR 27 records at PRO and Canadian
Jews at War.
AUS 434631 Flight Sergeant P. ‘Bluey’ Glick, RAAF.
Shot down and captured, August-September 1944. Known by Heilig and Van
Geffen, with whom he was posted to 101. Information in letter of 29
May 2000. Named in Australian Jewry Book of Honour.
1892246 Flight Sergeant Gerhard Heilig, son of Bruno
Heilig, 2 Windsor Court, Moscow Road, London W2, volunteered 12 March
1943. Crashed on 6 September 1944 in Lancaster III ND983 SR-B after
the Le Havre raid, take-off 1737 crashed 2055 (Chorley p. 410). Information
from AJEX card, personal correspondence and interview.
1398898 Flight Sergeant Reuben ‘Herky’ Herscovitch,
also known as Ron Hurst, son of Mr J. Herscovitch, 53 Bellot Street,
Manchester 8, volunteered 11 November 1941. AJEX card.
1868978 Flight Sergeant John Hayman Hertzog, 60 Finchley Court, Ballards
Lane, London N3, also known as Hereford. Information in letter to author
October 2000 and AJEX card.
Flight Sergeant Isaacs, possibly the same as 656562
Flight Sergeant, later Pilot Officer, Ralph Isaacs, and possibly killed
in action. Information from Heilig’s letter of 19 May 2000, WWRT 206 and AJEX card.
Flight Sergeant Felix King, also known as Flight Sergeant
Felix? Probably 1282123, son of Mrs G. Abrahams, 121 Castle Hill, Reading.
Information from Flight Lieutenant Guy Meadows and AJEX card.
187155/1548852 Flight Sergeant Israel L. Lander, son
of Mr D. Lander, 14 Bentley Road, Liverpool 8, volunteered 17 October
1941, Information from Heilig’s letter of 19 May 2000 and AJEX card.
Flight Sergeant Lipfriend (Chorley, p. 367, Vol. 4),
perhaps not an SO. Three surviving RAF men with this name appear in
AJEX cards, one injured in the crash on 31 July-1 August 1944 of Lancaster
I LL849 SR-O, take-off Ludford 1922, which clipped treetops and crashed
0242 near Litchfield, Staffs.
Flight Sergeant, later Pilot Officer, Adrian M. Marks
RAAF. Named on battle order of 101 Squadron 5 June 1944 sent by Jeff
Gascoigne to author, July 2000. Without a number it is impossible to
identify which of several RAF and RAAF men named Marks appearing on
AJEX cards he may be.
1157751 Flight Sergeant Montague Phillips of 23 Leigham
Hall, Streatham, London SW, volunteered 20 June 1940. Information from
Flight Sergeant D. J. Rubin, crash-landed Woodbridge
16 June 1944 in Lancaster I LL273 SR-D en route for Sterkrade, take-off
2310, hit by flak, no casualties. AJEX card not located.
533809 Flight Sergeant Joseph M. Starr RCAF. POW in
Lancaster 1 ME613 SR-M2, 21-2 June 1944 over Weselling, take-off 2314,
crashed Drunen, North Brabant, east of Waalwijk, Holland. Four POW,
four killed. Appears in Chorley and Canadian Roll at AJEX museum.
1893650 Flight Sergeant Leslie Temple, son of S. Temple,
7 Wellington Road, London E10. Flew 30 missions with 101 from 22 June
1944 until 28 October 1944. Information from AJEX card and interview.
1891610 Flight Sergeant M. Vangelder, son of Mr H.
Vangelder of 143 Golders Green Road, London NW11, volunteered
26 February 1943, taking part in frequent raids, such as on 3, 4, 7,
10, 14, 18, 30 April and 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 May 1945, and also in operations
such as ‘Manna’ (dropping supplies to Dutch and Belgian civilians) and
‘Exodus’ (returning liberated POWs to UK). Information from 101 Operations
Book, AIR 27 at PRO, and AJEX card.
1896373 Fl. Sgt. Henry Eric Wells aka Heinz Erich Feldstein,
son of Israel/Felix and Annie nee Kozak, enlisted 1943 – did one
complete tour Sep. 1944- Feb. 1945; later served RAF Intelligence BAOR
Denazification. Full story in Sugarman, JHSE Vol 43 , 2011
1864380 Flight Sergeant Monty Barss RAFVR, of 258
West End Rd., Ruislip, son of Daniel and Lily, of Ruislip, Middx. Volunteered
10 December 1941. Killed in action 12-13 August 1944 in Lancaster III
LM598 SR-M2 over Braunschweig, take-off Ludford 2120. Buried Hanover,
allegedly first in a Russian cemetery. Information from WWRT 186
and Addendum 26, SO Flight Sergeant Leslie Temple and AJEX card.
164909 Pilot Officer Cyril Cousin RAFVR, son of Julius
and Rachael of Hackney. Killed in action aged twenty on 29-30 August
1944 over Stettin in Lancaster III LM479 SR-F, take-off 2130, crashed
Dejbjerg, 3 kms south of Lem in Denmark. Buried Dejbjerg. Information
from WWRT 192 and AJEX card.
1895899 Flight Sergeant Wolf Herman Engelhardt, brother
of Siegfried Engelhardt (later Stephen Ellis) of 9 Thirlecroft/Thistlecroft
Road, Hersham, Walton-on-Thames, volunteered 24 May 1943. Killed in
action 28 July 1944 in Lancaster III LM 462 SR-V2, take-off 2145 to
Stuttgart, buried Rebrechien near Orleans. Information from AJEX card
and correspondence with family.
169599/1457154 Pilot Officer Otto Fischl or Fischel,
son of Mr Fischl of Natwood, Bowness, Westmoreland, volunteered 2 September
1941. Chaplain informed father and Jewish Chronicle on 11 April
1944 that he had been killed in action on 15 February 1944 over Berlin
in Lancaster III DV 236 SR-G George, five others having bailed out and
been captured. But on 16 April 1944 the Air Ministry reported he was
POW No. 3528 at camp L3. The AJEX card says he was missing in action
15-16 February 1944, and a POW.
1253600 Flight Sergeant Leslie Henry Fox, son of Sydney
and Sarah Fox, husband of Mrs A. Fox, of 144 Walm Lane, London NW2,
volunteered 29 November 1940. Killed in action 27 November 1942, reported
12 February 1943, buried Hamburg. This information from WWRT 196 and AJEX card. But Chorley (see entry date for casualty) says
he was in Lancaster III JB128 SR-U2, shot down over Berlin on 2-3 December
1943, take-off Ludford 1648, and was POW No. 269770 at Stalag 4B.
1396497/162792 Pilot Officer Ronald Halperin DFC,
son of Frank and Yetta nee Siegler, with a sister B. Halperin, 71
Chiltern Court, Baker Street, London W1, and an uncle P. H. Halperin,
38 Heath Drive, London NW3, volunteered 22 September 1941, gazetted
15 February 1944, detached from 156 Squadron. Killed in action 21 February
1944 aged 22, buried Rheinberg. Information in WWRT 202 and AJEX
card, but not Chorley.
1897268 Flight Sergeant George Kesten, parents perished
in Poland in Holocaust, cousin of B. Marguiles, 20 High Street, Waddesdon,
Aylesbury, volunteered 12 July 1943, trained at Madeley. Killed in action
4 November 1944 aged 22 in Lancaster 1 ME865 SR-K over Bochum, take-off
1738, buried Rheinberg. Information in WWRT 208 and AJEX card.
1892478 Flight Sergeant Rudolf or Ronald D. King RAFVR,
volunteered 11 October 1943. Killed in action 28 December 1944 aged
19 in Lancaster III PB634 SR-U over Bonn, take-off 1522, buried Rheinberg.
Information from WWRT 208 and AJEX card. J. Van Geffen, in a
letter of 3 June 2000, identifies him from the register of the Commonwealth
War Graves Commision as son of Adolf and Helen Kempner, nephew of David
Kempner of Golders Green, London, and of D. King, 340 Andrews Road,
London NW11, buried in Joint Grave 5 D18-19.
J92571/J36315 Pilot Officer Phillip Leeds RCAF, also
known as Leibowitz, born Montreal 28 December 1917, son of Morris and
Rose Leibowitz of 2781 Hampshire Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, graduate
of Western University, brother Ben in US Army. Volunteered at Windsor,
Ontario, 19 June 1942, reached UK October 1943, member of Caterpillar
Club, having once parachuted from a crashing plane. Killed in action
6 November 1944 in Lancaster 1 PB692 SR-K2 over Gelsenkirchen, take-off
1200, crashed near Wanne-Eikel, buried Reichswald. Information from Canadian Jews at War 44.
J27285 Pilot Officer Moie Marder RCAF, born in Regina,
son of I. D. Marder, 1352 Bay Avenue, Trail, BC. His brother, Flying
Officer Ben Marder, also in RCAF. Volunteered in Edmonton July 1942,
killed in action 30 January 1944 in Lancaster I DV303 SR-U over Berlin,
at Teltow, 16 kms southwest of Berlin, buried Berlin CWGC cemetery.
Information from Canadian Jews at War 49.
162590/1040284/1040484 Flight Sergeant, later Pilot
Officer, Stanley Mayer CGM, gazetted 1 November 1943 and Jewish Chronicle.
Killed in action 26 November 1943 in Lancaster III DV285 SR-Q over
Berlin, take-off 1715, shot down Liege, buried Heverlee, Leuven. Information
from AJEX card.
J39972 Flying Officer Morley Ornstein RCAF, son of
Mrs E. F. Ornstein of 563 Euclid Avenue, Toronto. Killed in action 23
March 1945, in Lancaster I DV245, on its 119th sortie, take-off
0711. Hit by flak and exploded at 1000 between Moodreich and Stuhr
7 kms east-southeast of Dolmenhorst over Bruchstrasse (?), buried Osterholz,
Becklingen, near Belsen, Germany. Information from Canadian Jews at War 53, and PRO AIR 27. 
2220929 Flight Sergeant Heinz George Popper, son of
Jules and Eugenie Popper of 165 Westrow Drive, New Upney, Barking. Killed
in action 29-30 August 1944, buried Malmo, Sweden. Information from
1144632 Flight Sergeant Anthony Ezra Rosen, son of
John Henry and Farmy E. Rosen of 35 Jamieson Road, Winton, Bournemouth,
volunteered February 1941. Survived crash on 23 September 1943 in Lancaster
I W4923 SR-N2 after Mannheim raid, near Ludford, take-off 1835, returned
0335. Killed in action 18-19 November 1943 in Lancaster III LM 370 SR-K2
over Berlin, take-off Ludford 1721, buried Schoonebeek, 14 kms southeast
of Drente, Holland. Information from WWRT 222 and AJEX card.
1876107 Flight Sergeant Hans Heinz Schwartz or Schwarz,
also known as Henry Blake, son of Erich and Elli Schwartz of 17 Mapesbury
Court, Shoot-up Hill, Cricklewood, London NW2, volunteered 25 April
1943. Killed in action aged 19 on 12-13 August 1944 in Lancaster III
PB258 SR-V over Braunschweig, buried Haverlee, Leuven, Belgium. Information
from AJEX card.
R151355 Flight Sergeant Samuel Lewis Silver RCAF,
husband of Violet Silver of 229 Catherine Street, Ottowa. Killed in
action 24 May 1944 in Lancaster I DV389 SR-X over Aachen, crashed Olzheim,
10 kms northeast of Prum, buried Rheinberg. Information from Canadian
Jews at War 69.
416574 Flight Sergeant Richard Maitland Singer RNZAF,
son of Richard Arnold and Dorothy nee Nicol of Auckland. Killed in action
on 9 Nov 1944, buried Oosterbeek, Arnhem. Included in Addendum 30
by present writer from personal visit to Oosterbeek. But he is perhaps
Wireless Operator R. J. or J. H. Singer RAAF, Lancaster III JB149 SR-R2
over Berlin, take-off 1947, shot down 3-4 September 1943, POW No. 222845,
Stalag 4B, the only Singer to survive as POW (see date entry in Chorley).
1309934/158600 Pilot Officer Henry Tiller, son of
Herman and Esther Tiller, 66 Wellesley Street, London E1. Killed in
action 2-3 December 1943 aged 23 in Lancaster III LM363 SR-P over Berlin,
take-off Ludford 1641, crashed Diephulz, buried Rheinberg. Information
from WWRT 230 and AJEX card.
172574 Flying Officer H. Taylor, son of Mrs B. Taylor,
201 East 35th Street, New York, nephew of M. Doniger, 16
Laverton Road, St Annes’s, Lancashire, killed in action, 30 July 1944.
Information from AJEX card. [A family relative says that Taylor did
not die in the raid]
1620582/1389282 Corporal, later Flight Sergeant, Favel
Tomas, also known as Tomachepolsky/Tomachopolski, husband of Mrs M.
Tomachelpolsky, volunteered 14 November 1941, killed in action 2 November
1943 in Lancaster III DV265 SR-F over Dusseldorf, take-off Ludford 1713,
buried Reichswald. In formation from Addendum 31 and AJEX card.
951320/182094/51330 Pilot Officer Aubrey Arnold Weldon
DFM, son of Bernard L. W. and Alice Weldon, 56 Lord Street, Southport
and Thurcroft, Yorkshire. Had been with 150 Squadron. Chorley says he
was killed in action on 2-3 December 1943 with PO Tiller (listed above).
Buried Rheinberg. Information from Addendum 105, AJEX card and Jewish Chronicle 5 December 1941.
J43864 Pilot Officer Benny Yellin RCAF, killed in
action 14 October 1944 in Lancaster 1 1174 SR-U over Duisberg, take-off
0222; Runnymede Memorial. Benny was from Montreal, 5319 St Urbain Street
– Canadian Jews at War p.81
J43636 Pilot Officer Bernard Zimring RCAF, son of
Samuel and Elsie of 4527 Harvard Ave., Montreal, born 1924 in Kenora,
Ontario. Killed in action 4 November 1944 in Lancaster 1 NF936 SR-F
over Bochum, take off 1709; buried Reichswald. Canadian Jews at War
The following names, appearing in R. Alexander’s 101
Squadron, Roll of Honour (London 1979) and Chorley’s six-volume Bomber Command Losses World War Two (London 1997-8),
might be Jewish, but no AJEX Jewish chaplains cards could be found for
them. In some cases the identifications are supported by eye-witness
reports. Since many Jewish fliers took aliases in case they were taken
prisoner, or even claimed to be Church of England when enlisting in
order to avoid being identified as Jewish on their ID tags, the roll
probably does not include all the SOs of Jewish origin who were killed
Flight Sergeant W. R. L. Hart, killed in action 16
Flying Officer G. W. Hess, killed in action 13 March
Flight Sergeant G. P. Herman RCAF, killed in action
18 November 1943, with A. E. Rosen.
Pilot Officer W. E. M. Kon RCAF, killed in action
5 October 1944 in Lancaster 1 LL758 SR-A over Saarbrucken, take-off
1706, crashed at Trembleur near Liege, 5 kms east-northeast of Herstel,
buried at Hotton.
Flying Officer J. M. Lyons, killed in action 29 November
1944 in Lancaster III LM755 SR-N over Dortmund, take-off 1208, buried
J/95545 Flight Sergeant Rudy W. Mohr/Mahr RCAF, son
of John and Anna Mohr of Winnipeg, killed in action 7 March 1945
aged 19 over Dessau, bombing the railways supplying the Junkers jet
engines and testing base, in Lancaster I PD268 SR-O. Memorial at Runnymede.
Flight Sergeant A. W. Schneider, killed in action
14 January 1944 in Lancaster III DV 287 SR-N over Braunschweig, shot
down by night fighter at 1830, crashed at Klezieraneen, Drenthe, 10
kms southeast of Emmen, Holland.
J86922 Pilot Officer and Flight Sergeant Gerhard Edgar
Herbert Schultz RCAF, killed in action 27 April 1944 in Lancaster II
ILM 493 SR-X over Friedrichshafen, take-off Ludford 2140, shot down
over Oberwinden near Eizbach, buried Durnbach. K. Scott, a 101 veteran
from Kings Lynn,  who knew Schultz well, relates
that he joined 101 at Ludford in October 1943, sharing hut 13 with Mr
Scott and his crew. A quiet Canadian from Medicine Hat City, he was
always playing ‘Red River Valley’ on his mandolin. He joined the crew
for their twelfth mission on 8 October to Hanover, take-off 2250, returning
after 5 hours and 40 minutes. Schultz went to another crew to finish
his own tour of missions while Mr Scott’s crew went on leave on 24 February
1944, and soon after Schultz was killed. His grave has a cross on it,
but his name suggests he may have been Jewish or of Jewish origin and
that, like many others, he kept this secret in case of capture. (Photo
of the grave from Ken Lewis.)
Wireless Operator C. H. Woelfe RCAF, killed in action
20 July 1944 in Lancaster 1 W4976 SR-P over Courtrai, take-off 0006,
crashed over town, buried Wevelegem, Belgium.
Probable Jews who survived, extracted from PRO 802/3/4/5
File AIR 27
Pilot Officer Berg RAF
J43539 Flight Sergeant R. P. Berg RCAF
R180913 Wireless Operator N. M. Berger RCAF
Flight Sergeant A. D. Block RAF
R218506 Flight Sergeant M. Gorbowitsky RCAF
Flying Officer Grauman RAF
AUS429920 Flying Officer J. A. Kurtzer
J40415 Flying Officer Lobsinger RCAF
Flight Sergeant H. Lyon RAF
J42681 Flying Officer A. L. Scheafer RCAF
J29097 Flight Lieutenant W. G. Schenk RCAF
Pilot Officer Snyder (spelling?)
J38295 Flying Officer J. R. Weinfield RCAF
J41384 Flying Officer J. E. Zittrer RCAF
Martin Sugarman, Reprinted with Permission
 J. J. Halley, Squadrons of the RAF and Commonwealth
(London 1988 ) 175-6 and P. Moyes, Bomber Squadrons of the
RAF (London 1988) 135-8.
 101 Squadron Website article sent to the
author by the nephew of Flight Sergeant W. H. Engelhardt, Special
Operator, see below.
 Journal of St Cross College, Oxford (1996)
Record No. 14, pages 36-8, article by former 101 SO Reuben Herscovitz.
 A. Brookes, Bomber Squadron at War - 101 Squadron
(London 1983) 97.
 Letter from former SO R. Crafer, November 2000.
 Moyes (see n. 1) 135-8.
 The Germans called this note Dudelsack,
'bagpipes', see P. Hinchliffe, The Other Battle (London 1996)
 Some reports wrongly suggest SOs broadcast false
messages, but their job was chiefly to disrupt German transmissions.
See P. Otter, Maximum Effort - Part 1 (London 1990) 23, see
also note 10 below.
 Interview with Flight Sergeant Leslie Temple,
13 May 2000.
 M. Streetly, Confound and Destroy (London
 B. B. Halpenny, Action Stations 2 (London
 Brookes (see n. 4) 227.
 Letter from SO Sam Brookes, July 2000.
 Interview with Flight Sergeant Leslie Temple,
13 May 2000.
 Otter (see n. 8) 24.
 Halpenny (see n. 11) pp. 130-3
 Letter and telephone conversation, November
 101 website (see n. 2); Brookes (see n. 4) 235
may refer to a different incident.
 Telephone conversation with his brother David
in Canvey, August 2000.
 Streetly (see n. 10) p.22
 M. Middlebrooke, The Nuremberg Raid, March
30-1 1944 (London 1973) 135.
 Telephone conversation with his cousin, Raymond
Barran, 24 July 2000.
 Middlebrooke (see n. 22) 171.
 Halpenny (see n. 11) pp. 130-3
 M. Middlebrooke and C. Everitt, Bomber Command
War Diaries (London 1985) 736.
 The PRO 802/3/4/5 records of 101 Squadron, AIR
27, give little more than crew names and brief raid reports, but many
Jewish-sounding names emerge, such as Corporal G. Cohen and Herscovitz,
listed in the appendices below. See Brookes (see n. 4) 227; R. Alexander,
101 Squadron (London 1979) appendices, and the six volumes
of W. R. Chorley, Bomber Command Losses in World War Two (London
 Telephone conversation, 27 April 2000.
 J. A. Davies, A Leap in the Dark (London
 Journal of St Cross College, Oxford (1997)
Record No. 15, pp. 40-2, Herscovitz obituary.
 Davies (see n. 29) 22.
 Correspondence and telephone conversation with
J. A. Davies, OBE, LLD, August 2000.
 Newspaper obituary of August 1998, sent to author
by J. A. Davies. Unknown source.
 Letter to author, August 2000.
 Bruce Lewis, Aircrew (London 2000) 137.
 Telephone conversation, 27 April 2000.
 Also referred to by H. Guy Meadows in a letter
of November 2000, who says Felix came via Canada as well.
 This may be 1892478 Flight Sergeant Rudolf King,
whose AJEX card states he was killed, according to Alexander (see
n. 27 - appendices), on 28 December 1944.
 Letter to author, November 2000.
 Brookes (see n. 27) 227.
 Leslie Temple interview (see n. 15).
 Interview at his home, 13 May 2000.
 Unpublished Heilig autobiography, sent to author,
June 2000 - now published.
 Ibid. and interview.
 Letter from Heilig, living in Austria, 19 May
 Letter to author, October 2000.
 Letter from Queensland, Australia, August 2000.
 Telephone conversation, November 2000.
 Letter, October 2000.
 G. Pynt, The Australian Jewry
Book of Honour (Australia 1973) 213 mentions thirteen airmen named
Marks, but it is unclear which one is referred to here.
 T. Boiten, Night Airwar (London 1999)
 Telephone conversation, 1 May 2000. He unfortunately
died in 2001.
 H. Morris, We Will Remember Them - an Addendum
(This is an addendum to We Will Remember Them - The British
Jewry Book of Honour of WW2 ) (London 1994) 26.
 Chorley (see n. 27) - see entry for casualties
on that day.
 Passport and other documents lent by the family.
 Letter in AJEX archives.
 Flight Sergeant E. R. Brown, Flight Sergeant
T. Crane, Pilot Officer P. J. Hyland, who lived in Entre Rios, Argentina,
Flight Sergeant J. Hodgson, Flight Sergeant J. T. V. Moore, Flight
Sergeant C. E. Smith, Pilot Officer A.W. Tuuri, RCAF.
 Middlebrook and Everitt (see n. 26) 418.
 D. Webster and J. Frankland, The
Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany, 1939-45 (London 1961)
 Ibid. 61, the Nuremberg Raid, 30-1 March 1944.
 Davies (see n. 29) 6.
 Aileen Clayton, The Enemy is Listening -
Story of the Y Service (London 1983, Cressy 1993) describes German-speaking
Palestinians serving in this field, but fails to mention that they
 Peter Leighton-Langer, German, Austrian
and Other 'Enemy Aliens' in the Allied Forces in World War Two
subtitled The King's Own Loyal Enemy Aliens (Berlin 2000) -
this is a manuscript in English held at AJEX archives.
The original German volume is called X steht fur unbekannt
and was published in Berlin in 1998.
 Heilig's autobiography.
 Jack Burston, 'Listening to German Fighter Control',
AJEX Journal (November 2000) 13.
 Letter, 17 May 2000.
 R. Burns, The Life and Times of A. D. Blumlein
(London 2000), Foreword. The plane crashed at Welsh Bicknor, Ross-on-Wye,
and he and his crew are buried at Ross and Whitchurch cemetery (CWGC
 R. V. Jones, Most Secret War (London
 James Leasor, Green Beach (London 1975)
tells the whole story, updated by Martin Sugarman in a paper entitled
'Jack Nissenthal - the VC Hero who Never Was', Orders and Medals
Research Society Journal (London, Summer 1998) 155-65, republished
in Military Advisor (California, Summer 1998) 16-22.
 Max Herman Alexander Neuman, born 7 February
1897 in Chelsea, London, son of Herman and Sarah Neuman, served in
the Great War, became a Cambridge Mathematics don and in September
1942 was summoned to Bletchley Park where he developed the 'Collossos',
the world's first programmable computer. This was used to break the
'Lorenz' codes, an advanced version of 'Enigma', used between Hitler
himself and his High Command. A display at Bletchley Park Museum and
St John's College, Cambridge, explains his contribution to the war
effort. He died in 1984.
 101 Squadron Lancasters were coded 'SR'.
 Telephone conversation with SO comrade Peter
Holway of Leeds.
 Chorley (see n. 27) 6; p. 82: says it was Lancaster
III DV245 SR-S and was over Bremen.
 Correspondence, October 2000.