Many Jews settled in Zambia in the early twentieth century seeking economic prosperity. The earliest Jewish settlements in then-Rhodesia
were located in Livingstone and Broken Hill. The first Jewish settlers
came to the country and were prominent in developing the cattle production
and copper mining. Although small in population, the Jewish community
left a major mark on the economy and political life of Zambia, especially some of the early Jewish immigrants whose enterprise and initiatives laid the foundations for the modern-day economy.
By 1905, a permanent Jewish congregation had been
established in Livingstone. The congregation of 38 members celebrated
its first wedding in 1910. Brother Elie and Harry Susman, who arrived in 1900, were the first to develop large-scale wagon and river transport. They also pegged the Nkana copper mine which they later sold and is now the largest copper mine in Zambia.
Sir Edmund Davis, Solly
Sir Ernest Oppenheimer
were prominent in developing copper mining while Abe Galaun, who arrived in Zambia just before the outbreak of World War II, became a dominant force in the country's meat and dairy business. Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda once dubbed him "the man who feeds the nation."
Over time, much of the
Jewish community became very successful
in the ranching industry and iron foundries.
By 1921, 110 Jews lived in Rhodesia: 48 l
in Livingstone, 11 in Broken Hill, and 25
in Lusaka. Several more Jewish refugees arrived
to the country following the Holocaust.
The population peaked at 1,200 in the mid-1950s.
By this time, the center of Jewish life
had shifted to Lusaka, the copperbelt center
of the country.
During the 1960s, much of the Jewish population immigrated
abroad; by 1968, the Jewish community had declined to 600 people.
Prior to Zambia’s independence in 1964, Jews
were active in local government. Jews served as mayors in Livingstone,
Broken Hill, Kitwe, and Luanshya. In the 1930s, Sir Roy Welensky was
the leading political figure in Northern Rhodesian. From 1959 to 1962,
M. G. Rabb was elected to the national legislative assembly. From 1962
to 1968, S. W. Magnus was a prominent member of the Zambian parliament.
After 1968, Magnus was appointed a high court judge.
In 1978, the Council for Zambia Jewry was founded
in Lusaka to oversee Jewish communal activities. The council provides
assistance to political refugees and the poverty-stricken with medical
and financial aid. The two synagogues located in Lusaka and Ndola (it
has recently been closed due to a lack of congregants), but no rabbis
About 50 Jews remained in Zambia by 2004, most of them living in Lusaka. By 2013, less than 35 Jews remained but no rabbi directs the community
Israel and Zambia maintain full diplomatic relations.
The Israeli ambassador in Harare, Zimbabwe represents Zambia.
of Southern African Sub-continent
Hugh Macmillan and Frank Shapiro. Zion
in Africa: The Jews of Zambia. London and New York: I. B. Tauris,
1999. ix + 342 pp
Zaidner, Michael. Jewish
Travel Guide 2000. Intl Specialized Book Service, 2000