Donetsk is an industrial city in eastern Ukraine established in 1869 when an iron mill and coal mines were opened. Until 1924 it was called Yuzovka and until 1961 was called Stalino.
Three decades after its founding, the Jewish population of Donetsk numbered 3,168 (11.5% of the total). They were occupied mostly as traders and artisans. In 1887, a magnificent synagogue was built, a talmud torah school opened and charity organizations were established. That same year, the Ukrainian authorities prevented a pogrom against Jews and Englishmen. However, during a pogrom which lasted for three days from October 20-23, 1905, many Jews were killed and wounded and a number of the town's synagogues and Jewish houses were destroyed.
In 1910, there were three synagogues and five Jewish private schools in the city. Zionism was active and a delegate from Donetsk was sent to the Sixth Zionist Congress. During World War I, many Jewish refugees from the surrounding areas came to Donetsk and were helped by a local Jewish committee.
Between the wars the general population of Donetsk grew by 400% and the Jewish population doubled. There were 11,300 Jews living in the town in 1926 (10.6% of the total population). In 1922, most of the Jews were artisans and were dominant in tailoring and hide production. In the second half of the 1920's there were 300 Jewish workers (among 12,000) in the big steel mill, 30 of them professionals. There were also several hundred young Jews among the 4,000 workers employed in the construction of new steel mills. There was one Yiddish school with 320 pupils.
In 1939, the Jews numbered 24,991 (total population 466,268). At the beginning of the German-Soviet war thousands of Jews were evacuated by their factories, such as about 1,500 Jews employed at the Stalino Works who left with their families for the Urals. On October 20, 1941, the town was occupied by the Germans, who held it until September 8, 1943. A large ghetto was set up and its inhabitants were kept without food or medical aid, with hundreds dying every day. In December 1941, Einzatzcommando-6 murdered several hundred Jews.
In April 1942, the liquidation of the Donetsk ghetto commenced. The Germans took the Jews to the abandoned Maria mine and threw most of them down the shafts alive. They also used gas vans, throwing the bodies into the mine. Some 15,000 Jews were murdered.
According to the 1959 census, the Jewish population of Donetsk numbered 21,000 (3% of the total). There was a synagogue, a rabbi and poultry slaughtering until 1959, when the synagogue was closed down during High Holiday services. In 1963, the militia clamped down on daily services and confiscated religious articles, returning only prayer shawls.
In 1970 the estimated Jewish population was 40,000. Many immigrated to Israel and the West in the 1990's but Jewish life was revived, with Pinchas Vyshedsky as chief rabbi from 1995 and a full range of religious, educational, and cultural services offered to the community.
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