TYSZOWCE


TYSZOWCE (in Jewish sources Tishvits), a village in Lublin province, near the city of *Tomaszow Lubelski, E. Poland. Tyszowce was granted municipal rights in 1453. Jewish merchants settled there in the early 16th century, and by the 1630s they actively participated in the fairs at Lublin and *Lvov. In 1565 King Sigismund II Augustus granted the Jews equal rights and forbade market days to be held on the Sabbath. The *Council of the Lands sometimes met in Tyszowce and discussed such important matters as autonomous governance of communities, independent choice of rabbis, guardianship of orphans, marriage arrangements (Takkanot Tishvits, 1583), intercession with the government (1624), and financial support for Jews in Ereẓ Israel (1742). In 1649 and 1655/57, the Jews suffered from the armies of S. *Czarniecki and *Chmielnicki. In the 18th century they engaged in shoemaking and pottery, in addition to commerce. In 1765, 925 Jews living there paid the poll tax. In 1815 the town was included in Congress Poland, and from 1823 to 1862 the Russian authorities limited Jewish settlement in the area because of its proximity to the Austrian border. The 732 Jews living there in 1827 comprised 34% of the population. In 1857 there were 956 Jews (36%); in 1897/98, 851 Jews (85%); in 1921, 2,454 Jews (55%). Between the world wars all the Jewish parties were represented in the town and there was an active community life.

Holocaust Period

On the outbreak of World War II, there were about 3,800 Jews in Tyszowce. In September 1939 the Red Army entered the town but withdrew after a short time, according to a new Soviet-German agreement on the partition line. About 1,000 Jews left the town for the East with the withdrawing Red Army. The German army occupied the town at the beginning of October 1939. In May 1942 about 1,000 Jews were deported to the *Belzec death camp. The Jewish community was liquidated in November 1942, when the remaining Jews were sent to the same camp. After the war the Jewish community of Tyszowce was not reconstituted.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Halpern, Pinkas, index; B. Wasiutyński, Ludność żydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (1930), 60; M. Balaban, Historja Źydów w Krakowie i na Kazimierzu, 1 (1931) 330, 433; idem, in: Istoriya yevreyskogo naroda, 11 (1914), 166; M. Schorr, Organizacja wewnętrzna Żydów w Polsce (1899), 11, 17, 18, 82.


Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.