TACHOV (Ger. Tachau), town in W. Bohemia, Czechoslovakia. Jews from Tachov are mentioned in responsa of the 15th century and in documents from 1464 onward. The community had close connections with adjoining Bavaria, where Tachauer was a family name common among Jews. Five Jewish families are mentioned in the town in 1552 and 1570. The municipal records of 1605 include regulations concerning the inner life of the community. There were 17 families and 12 Jewish houses in the town in 1724. In 1749 the Jews formed an independent fire-fighting unit. An outstanding personality of Tachov was
Rabbi Moses ben Hisdai, said to be one of the authors of the prayer Avinu Malkeinu, allegedly was born in Tachov in the 13th century.
In 1836 there were 266 Jews living in 15 houses in Tachov. Woodware, glass, and mother-of-pearl factories were founded by Jews in the 19th century. In 1911 the old Jewish quarter burned down and a new synagogue was built. The old community of Nove Sedliste (Neu-Zedlisch), affiliated to the Tachov community, was disbanded in 1914. The Tachov community numbered 273 in 1921 and 180 in 1930 (2.5% of the total population).
Most of the Jews left Tachov at the time of the Sudeten crisis; those remaining were sent to concentration camps. The synagogue was destroyed on November 10, 1938.
J. Schoen, Geschichte der Juden in Tachau (1927); idem, in: Zeitschrift fuer die Geschichte der Juden in der Tschechoslowakei, 3 (1932–33), 213–20; A. Grottee, Deutsche, boehmische und polnische Synagogentypen (1915), 11, 73, 78; idem, in: AZDJ, 81 (1917), 54f.; B. Brilling, in: Judaica Bohemiae, 3 (1967), 26–35 (Ger.). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Fiedler, Jewish Sights of Bohemia and Moravia, (1991) 176–78.
[Meir Lamed /
Yeshayahu Jelinek (2nd ed.)]
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.