SREM


SREM (Ger. Schrimm; Pol. Szrem; Yid. Strim), town in Poznan province, W. Poland. Jews settled in Srem in the late 16th century and engaged in commerce, weaving, and goldsmithery. In 1656, during the war between Poland and Sweden, the Polish general S. Czarniecki persecuted the Jews of Srem, and those who survived left the town. In the 1670s Jews resettled in Srem and a community was organized. In 1683 a meeting of the council of the galil (province) of Poznan (see *Council of the Lands) took place there. In the 18th century Srem Jews engaged in the trade of agricultural products, tailoring, shoemaking, and liquor production. In 1765 the Jewish community numbered 327. In the mid-18th century Samuel b. Azriel of Landsburg was the rabbi of Srem. From 1815, under Prussian rule, the Jewish population increased, numbering 924 (27% of the total) in 1840 and 1,127 (19%) in 1871. The Jews were engaged mostly in the building trade, tailoring, transportation, and shopkeeping. In the late 1870s many Jews left for Poznan and other cities in central Germany. In 1895 only 607 Jews were left (11%), and this number decreased to 318 (4.5%) by 1910. In the early 20th century the Srem community maintained charitable institutions and an association for Jewish historical and literary research. In 1921, in independent Poland, there were 103 Jews (1.5%) there.

[Arthur Cygielman]

Holocaust Period

Before World War II there were 26 Jews in Srem. Under German occupation, it belonged to the Regierungsbezirk Posen of the Warthegau. In October 1939 the Jews were deported to a transit camp in Poznan, from where they were probably sent to the General Government or to a larger town in Warthegau.

[Danuta Dombrowska]

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Halpern, Pinkas, index; B. Wasiutyński, Ludność żydowska w Polsce w wiekach xix i xx (1930), 167; A. Heppner and J. Herzberg, Aus Vergangenheit und Gegenwart der Juden und der Juedischen Gemeinden in den Posener Landen (1909–29), index; D. Lewin, Judenverfolgungen im zweiten Schwedisch-polnischen Kriege (1901), 28, 31.


Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.