SANOK (called Sonik by the Jews), town in Rzeszow province, S.E. Poland. From 1772 to 1918 the town was under Austrian rule (central *Galicia). The remains of an ancient Jewish
The number of Jews in Sanok in 1939 was over 5,000. The Germans entered the city on Sept. 8, 1939, and in the first days of the occupation the synagogues were burned. A few hundred Jews were deported to the other side of the San River, which was under Soviet rule. In 1941 the Jews were concentrated in a ghetto, which contained about 8,000 people – including Jews from nearby townlets. There they were subjected to forced labor, including work in the stone quarries of Trepcza. On Sept. 10, 1942, most of the Jews of Sanok were deported to a concentration camp at Zaslaw. Only a few succeeded in escaping. After the Germans concentrated Jews from the entire Sanok area in the Zaslaw camp, 4,000 people were sent to the *Belzec death camp. The sick and aged were shot in the nearby forests. In October 1942 two more transports were sent to Belzec. On Sept. 14, 1942, the Germans announced that those who had escaped would be allowed to return to the ghetto and live there. About 300 Jews returned to the ghetto; they were later executed or transported to concentration camps. A few hundred Sanok Jews survived the Holocaust, most of them having been in the Soviet Union during the war. Some Jews rescued from the Nazis were killed by antisemitic Polish bands.
A. Shravit (ed.), Sanok, Sefer Zikkaron (1969); Wroclaw, Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich, 2501/II 9730/II (= CAHJP, ḤM 6664, ḤM 71059); Halpern, Pinkas, index; R. Mahler, Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likht fun Tsifern (1958), index; idem, Ha-Haskalah ve-ha-Ḥasidut (1961), 433–5; B. Wasiutyński, Ludność żydowska w Polsce w wiekach XIX i XX (1930), 96, 107, 118, 147; I. Schiper, Dzieje handlu żydowskiego na ziemiach polskich (1937), index; N.M. Gelber, Ha-Tenu'ah ha-Ẓiyyonit be-Galiẓyah 1875–1918 (1958), 201; S. Nobel, in: YIVO Bleter, 45 (1965/66); A. Fastnacht, Zarys dziejów Sanoka (1958).
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.