SAN MARINO, tiny independent republic near *Rimini surrounded by Italian territory. Jewish loan-banks appeared there as early as 1369, one of them being managed by a woman. In 1442 some of the bankers were accused of conspiracy against the state, and the duke of Urbino intervened with the "regents" of the republic to prevent the Jews being further molested. The activities of Jewish moneylenders continued until the 17th century. Although in modern times any Jewish connection with San Marino was sporadic, the tiny republic obediently enacted racial laws in 1938, in imitation of Italy, against the dozen Jewish families who had drifted there in recent years; they were repealed on the fall of Mussolini in the summer of 1943. The consul general of Israel in Rome serves in the same capacity also in San Marino.


Milano, Bibliotheca, index; Bernardi, in: REJ, 48 (1904), 241–64; 49 (1904), 80–97; 50 (1905), 129–35; Lonardo, in: Atti e memorie della Regia deputazione di storia patria per le Marche, 2 (1905), 93–115.

[Ariel Toaff]

Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.