PLANTS


Research into the flora mentioned in the ancient Hebrew literature is grounded on the basic assumption that within historical times no fundamental changes have taken place in the country's climate (see *Agriculture). This assumption, which allows conclusions to be drawn from present-day plants about the floral landscape of bygone days, is particularly important for identifying the flora of the Bible and of talmudic literature. The overwhelming majority of them can be identified with those of today, but, as with all the terms of biblical and talmudic realia, many and varied identifications and interpretations have been suggested for them. Modern botanical and philological studies have, however, helped greatly in arriving at a correct identification.

In the Bible

The Bible mentions about 100 names of plants, the bulk of them of Ereẓ Israel, the others being trees of Lebanon and tropical plants that yield an aromatic substance or were used in incense. (See Table: Plants in the Bible and Mishnah.) These names refer to specific plants, but some are generic names, such as koẓ ve-dardar ("thorns and thistles") and shamir vashayit ("briars and thorns"). Although the biblical plants are chiefly those which were economically important, they are to a large extent mentioned fortuitously. The carob, for example, although undoubtedly grown at that time, is not mentioned in the Bible, while specific vegetables are mentioned in one verse only of the Bible; and these are the vegetables of Egypt for which the children of Israel longed during their wandering in the wilderness (Num. 11:5).

In Talmudic Literature

The Mishnah, the Talmuds, and the Midrashim add hundreds of names of plants to those mentioned in the Bible. They are particularly numerous in the Mishnah of Zera'im which treats of laws connected with agriculture. In the aggadic Midrashim, too, many plants are mentioned in simile and parable. In all, the ancient literature on Ereẓ Israel mentions close to 500 names of flora. The Babylonian Talmud refers to scores of plants of Babylonia and its neighborhood. In the Table: Plants in Bible and Mishnah, only one identification is given. Alternative suggestions of identification will be found in the individual articles.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

H.B. Tristram, Natural History of the Bible (18775); J. Schwarz, Tevu'ot ha-Areẓ (1900); Loew, Flora; G. Dalman, Arbeit und Sitte in Palaestina, 7 vols. in 8 (1928–42); H.N. and A.L. Moldenke, Plants of the Bible (1952); J. Feliks, Ha-Ḥakla'ut be-Ereẓ Yisrael bi-Tekufat ha-Mishnah ve-ha-Talmud (1963); idem, Kilei Zera'im ve-Harkavah (1967); idem, Olam ha-Ẓome'aḥ ha-Mikra'i (19682), contains additional bibliography. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Feliks, Ha-Ẓome'aḥ.

[Jehuda Feliks]

Plants and Products of Plants Mentioned in the Bible and Mishnah Plants and Products of Plants Mentioned in the Bible and Mishnah

English Name Scientific Name Hebrew name Description of Plant Reference
Acacia Acacia albida שִׁטָּה, שִׁטִּים thorn tree Ex. 26:15; Isa. 41:19, et al.
Alga Chlorophyta יְרוֹקָה seaweed Shab. 2:1
Almond Prunus amygdalus לוּז fruit tree Gen. 30:37
(Amygdalus communis) שָׁקֵד Num. 17:23; Jer. 1:11, et al.
Aloe Aquilaria agallocha אֲהָלִים fragrant tropical tree Num. 24:6; Prov. 7:17
אֲהָלוֹת Ps. 45:9; Song 4:14;
אַלְמֻגִּים I Kings 10:11–12
אַלְגֻּמִּים II Chron. 2:7; 9:10–11
Amaranth Amaranthus retroflexus יַרְבּוּז vegetable (herb) Shev. 9:1
Amomum Amomum cardamomum חָמָם tropical spice plant Uk. 3:5
Apple Pyrus malus תַּפּוּחַ fruit tree Joel 1:12; Song 2:3, et al.
Artichoke Cynara scolymus קִנְרֵס garden vegetable Kil. 5:8; Uk. 1:6
Asafetida, Fennel Ferula assafoetida חִלְתִּית herb whose gum fennel is used in spices and medicine Shab. 20:3; Av. Zar. 2:7, et al.
Balm, Balsam Commiphora opobalsamum בֹּשֶׂם the balsam shrub whose Song 5:1
נָטָף resin yields an aromatic Ex. 30:34
צְרִי, צֳרִי substance Gen. 37:25; 43:11, et al.
קָטָף Shev. 7:6
Barley Hordeum sativum שְׂעוֹרָה cereal grass Ex. 9:31; Deut. 8:8, et al.
Barley, two-rowed Hordeum distichum שִׁבּוֹלֶת שׁוּעָל cereal grass Isa. 28:25
שׂוֹרָה Kil. 1:1; Pes. 2:5, et al.
Bdellium Commiphora africana בְּדוֹלַח tropical tree whose resin yields an aromatic substance Gen. 2:12; Num. 11:7
Bean, broad Vicia faba פּוֹל legume II Sam. 17:28; Ezek. 4:9, et al.
Bean, hyacinth Dolichos lablab פּוֹל הַלָּבָן legume Kil. 1:1; Ma'as. 4:7, et al.
Bean, yard-long (asparagus bean) Vigna sesquipedalis פּוֹל הֶחָרוּב legume Kil. 1:2
Beet spinach Beta vulgaris var. cicla תֶּרֶד garden vegetable Kil. 1:3; Ter. 10:11, et al.
Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon יַבְּלִית weed Kelim 3:6
Box Buxus sempervirens אֶשְׁכְּרוֹעַ hardwood shrub Yoma 3:9; Kelim 12:8; Neg. 2:1

Plants

Boxthorn Lycium europaeum אָטָד thorny shrub Gen. 50:10–11; Judg. 9:14–15, et al.
Broom plant Retama roetam רֹתֶם desert shrub I Kings 19:4–5; Job 30:4, et al.
Cabbage, garden Brassica oleracea var. capitata תְּרוֹבְתוֹר garden vegetable Kil. 1:3
Cabbage, kale Brassica oleracea var. acephala כְּרוּב hardy cabbage Kil. 1:3; Ter. 10:11, et al.
Calamus, Cymbopogon martini קָנֶה הַטּוֹב tropical aromatic plant Jer. 6:20
Indian sweet קְנֵה־בֹּשֶׂם Ex. 30:23
קָנֶה Isa. 43:24; Song. 4:14, et al.
Cane, biflorate Saccharum biflorum אַגְּמוֹן reed that grows near water Isa. 9:13, 58:5, et al.
Caper Capparis spinosa צָלָף, קַפְרֵס thorny plant whose buds and Ma'as. 4:6
אֲבִיּוֹנָה fruit are used as spices Eccles. 12:5, Ma'as 4:6
Caperberry
Caraway Carum carvi (קַרְבוֹס (קַנְבוֹס vegetable used as a spice Kil. 2:5
Carob Ceratonia siliqua חָרוּב fruit tree Pe'ah 1:5; Dem. 2:1, et al.
Castor-oil plant Ricinus communis קִיקָיוֹן shrub whose seed yields oil Jonah 4:6, 7, 9, 10
Cattail Typha angustata סוּף marsh and water plant Ex. 2:3; Isa. 19:6, et al.
Cedar Cedrus libani אֶרֶז forest tree of Lebanon Isa. 2:13; Amos 2:9, et al.
Celery Apium graveolens כַּרְפַּס garden vegetable Shev. 9:1
Chick-pea Cicer arietinum חָמִיץ legume Isa. 30:24
אֲפוּנִים Pe'ah 3:3; Kil. 3:2
Chicory Cichorium intybus עוֹלְשִׁין garden vegetable Shev. 7:1; Pes. 2:6
Chicory, wild Cichorium pumilum עוֹלְשֵׁי־שָׂדֶה wild vegetable Kil. 1:2
Cinnamon, Cinnamonum zeylanicum קִנָּמוֹן aromatic tropical spice tree Ex. 30:23; Prov. 7:17, et al.
Ceylonese
Cinnamon, Chinese Cinnamonum cassia קִדָּה aromatic tropical spice tree Ex. 30:24; Ezek. 27:19
Cinnamon, Indo-Chinese Cinnamonum laurei קְצִיעָה aromatic tropical spice tree Ps. 45:9
Citron Citrus medica עֵץ הָדָר fruit tree Lev. 23:40
אֶתְרוֹג Ma'as. 1:4; Bik. 2:6, et al.
Colocasia Colocasia antiquorum קַרְקָס vegetable with edible bulb Ma'as. 5:8
Coriander Coriandrum sativum גַּד herb whose seed is used as Ex. 16:31; Num. 11:7
כֻּסְבָּר a spice Kil. 1:2; Ma'as. 3:9, et al.
Cotton Gossypium herbraceum כַּרְפַּס plant with fibrous fruit Esth. 1:6
Gossypium arboreum צֶמֶר־גֶּפֶן Kil. 7:2
Cowpea Vigna sinensis פּוֹל הַמִּצְרִי legume Kil. 1:2; Shev. 2:9, et al.
Cowpea, Nile Vigna nilotica שְׁעוּעִית legume Kil. 1:1
Cress Lepidium latifolium עֲדָל garden vegetable Uk. 3:4
Cress, garden Lepidium sativum שַׁחְלַיִם garden vegetable Ma'as. 4:5
Crocus, saffron Crocus sativus כַּרְכּוֹם plant used as a spice and for coloring Song 4:14; Nid. 2:6
Cucumber, bitter Citrullus colocynthis פַּקּוּעוֹת wild desert plant II Kings 4:39; Shab. 2:2
Cucumber, squirting Ecballium elaterium יְרוֹקַת הַחֲמוֹר wild herb Oho. 8:1
Cumin Cuminum cyminum כַּמּוֹן herb whose seeds are used as a spice Isa. 2:25, 27; Dem. 2:1
Cypress Cupressus sempervirens גֹּפֶר forest evergreen tree Gen. 6:14
תְּאַשּׁוּר Isa. 41:19; 60:13, et al.
Daffodil, sea Pancratium maritimum חֲבַצֶּלֶת fragrant wild flower Isa. 35:1; Song 2:1
Darnel Lolium temulentum זוּן weed grass Kil. 1:1; Ter. 2:6
Dill Anethum graveolens שֶׁבֶת plant used as a spice Pe'ah 3:2; Ma'as. 4:5; Uk. 3:4
Durra Sorghum cernuum דֹּחַן summer cereal Ezek. 4:9; Shev. 2:7

Plants

Ebony Diospyros ebenum הָבְנִים tropical hard wood Ezek. 27:15
Emmer Triticum dicoccum כֻּסֶּמֶת winter cereal Ex. 9:32; Isa. 28:25, et al.
Eryngo Eryngium creticum חַרְחֲבִינָא edible wild herb Pes. 2:6
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare גֻּפְנִין herb used as a spice Dem. 1:1
Fennel flower Nigella sativa קֶצַח herb whose seeds are used as a spice Isa. 28:25, 27; Eduy. 5:3
Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-Graecum תִּלְתָּן cultivated legume used as forage or medicine Kil. 2:5; Ter. 10:5
Fern, ceterach Ceterach officinarum דַּנְדַּנָּה medicinal fern Shev. 7:1–2
Fern, maiden hair Adiantum capillus veneris יוֹעֶזֶר medicinal fern Shab. 14:3
Fig Ficus carica תְּאֵנָה fruit tree Num. 20:5; Deut. 8:8, et al.
Fig, sycamore Ficus sycomorus שִׁקְמָה fruit tree I Kings 10:27; Isa. 9:9, et al.
Flax Linum usitatissimum פִּשְׁתָּן herb whose stem yields fiber Josh. 2:6; Hos. 2:7; et al.
פִּשְׁתָּה and from whose seed oil is extracted Pe'ah 6:5
Frankincense Boswellia carteri לְבוֹנָה tree yielding aromatic resin used in incense Ex. 30:34; Isa. 60:6, et al.
Galbanum Ferula galbaniflua חֶלְבְּנָה herb whose resin was used in incense Ex. 30:34
Garlic Allium sativum שׁוּם vegetable used as spice Num. 11:5
Ginger, wild Arum dioscoridis לוּף שׁוֹטֶה wild vegetable Shev. 7:1, 2, et al.
Gourd, Calabash Lagenaria vulgaris דְּלַעַת vegetable with edible fruit Kil. 1:2; Ma'as. 1:5, et al.
Grape vine Vitis vinifera גֶּפֶן fruit shrub Gen. 40:9; Num. 20:5, et al.
עֲנָבִים
Graspea Lathyrus sativus טֹפַח legume Pe'ah 5:3; Kil. 1:1, et al.
Hawthorn Crataegus azarolus עֻזְרָר wild fruit tree Dem. 1:1; Kil. 1:4, et al.
Heliotrope Heliotropium europaeum עַקְרַבָּנִין medicinal wild herb Shev. 7:2; Er. 2:7
Hemlock, poison Conium maculatum רוֹשׁ,רֹאשׁ poisonous herb Deut. 29:17; Hos. 10:4, et al.
Hemp Cannabis sativa קַנְבּוֹס herb whose stem yields fiber Kil. 5:8; 9:1, 7
Henna Lawsonia alba כֹּפֶר shrub which yields a dye Song. 1:14; 4:13, et al.
Hyssop Hyssopus officinalis אֵזוֹב כּוֹחֲל aromatic herb Neg. 14:6; Par. 11:7
(V. marjoram)
Iris Iris germanica אִירוּס plant whose bulb yields an Kil. 5:8; Oho. 8:1
Iris pallida aromatic substance
Ivy Hedera helix קִיסוֹס climbing evergreen vine Kil. 5:8; Suk. 1:4, et al.
Jujube Zizyphus vulgaris שֵׁיזָפִין fruit tree Kil. 1:4
Jujube, wild Zizyphus spina christi צֶאֱלִים wild tree with edible fruit Job 40:21–22
רִימִין Dem. 1:1; Kil. 1:6
Juniper Juniperus exelsa בְּרוֹשׁ coniferous tree of Lebanon Isa. 14:8; 37:24, et al.
(savin high) בְּרוֹת Song. 1:17
Knotweed Polygonum aviculare אַבּוּב־רוֹעֶה medicinal wild herb Shab. 14:3
Laudanum Cistus ladanum לֹט shrub yielding aromatic resin Gen. 37:25; 43:11
Laurel Laurus nobilis אֹרֶן forest tree with aromatic leaves Isa. 44:14
Lavender, Lavandula officinalis אֵזוֹבְיוֹן aromatic shrub Shab. 14:3; Neg. 14:6, et al.
Lavandula
Leek Allium porrum חָצִיר garden herb Num. 11:5
כְּרֵישָׁה Kil. 1:2; Shev. 7:1
כַּרְתִּי Ber. 1:2; Suk. 3:6
Leek, wild Allium ampeloprasum כְּרֵישֵׁי שָׂדֶה wild herb Kil. 1:2; Uk. 3:2
Lentil Lens esculenta עֲדָשִים legume Gen. 25:34; II Sam. 17:28, et al.
Lettuce Lactuca sativa חֲזֶרֶת garden vegetable Kil. 1:2; Pes. 2:6, et al.
Lettuce, wild Lactuca scariola חֲזֶרֶת גַּלִּים wild vegetable Kil. 1:2

Plants

Lily, madonna Lilium candidum שׁוֹשָׁן, שׁוֹשַׁנָּה aromatic flower Hos. 14:6; Song. 6:2–3, et al.
Lily, Solomon's Arum palaestinum לוּף wild vegetable with edible Pe'ah, 6:10; Kil. 2:5
(black calla) bulb
Love grass Eragrostis bipinnata חִילָף weed used for making baskets Kelim 17:17
Lupine Lupinus termis תֻּרְמוֹס legume Kil. 1:3; Shab. 18:1, et al.
Lupine, yellow Lupinus luteus פַּלְסְלוּס legume Kil. 1:3
Madder Rubia tinctorim פּוּאָה climbing plant whose roots are used for dyeing Shev. 5:4; 7:2, et al.
Mandrake Mandragora officinarum דּוּדָאִים wild herb with aromatic fruit Gen. 30:14–16; Song. 7:14
Marjoram, Syrian Majorana syriaca אֵזוֹב aromatic wild plant Ex. 12:22; Lev. 14:4, et al.
Mastic Pistacia lentiscus בָּכָא, בְּכָאִים wild shrub II Sam. 5:23–24; Ps. 84:7
Melon Cucumis melo מְלָפְפוֹן garden vegetable Kil. 1:2; Ter. 2:6, et al.
Melon, chate Cucumis melo var. chate קִשּׁוּת, קִשֻּׁאִים garden vegetable Num. 11:5; Kil. 1:2, et al.
Millet Panicum miliaceum פְּרָגִים summer cereal Ḥal. 1:4; Shev. 2:7
Mint Mentha piperita מִינְתָּא herb used as spice Uk. 1:2
Mudar Calotropis procera פְּתִילַת הַמִּדְבָּר wild shrub with fibrous fruit Shab. 2:1
Mulberry Morus nigra תּוּת fruit tree Ma'as. 1:2
Mushroom Boletus, etc. פִּטְרִיָּה generic name for the mushroom species Uk. 3:2
Mustard, black Brassica nigra חַרְדָּל wild herb whose seeds are used as a condiment Kil. 1:2
Mustard, field Sinapis arvensis לִפְסָן wild herb Kil. 1:5
Mustard, white Sinapis alba חַרְדָּל מצְרִי wild herb whose seeds are used as a condiment Kil. 1:2
Myrrh Commiphora schimperi מוֹר tropical aromatic tree Ex. 30:23; Song 1:13, et al.
Commiphora abyssinica
Myrtle Myrtus communis הֲדַס aromatic shrub Isa. 41:19; 55:13, et al.
עֵץ עָבֹת Lev. 23:40; Neh. 8:15, et al.
Narcissus Narcissus tazetta (?)שׁוֹשַׁנַת הָעֲמָקִים wild flower Song 2:1
Nard Nardostachys jatamansi נֵרְדְּ, נְרָדִים aromatic plant Song 1:12; 4:13–14, et al.
(Spikenard)
Nettle Urtica sp. סִרְפָּד stinging wild weed Isa. 55:13
Oak Quercus ithaburensis אַלּוֹן forest tree Gen. 35:8; Isa. 2:13, et al.
Quercus calliprinos
Oak, gall Quercus infectoria (Boissieri) מֵילָה forest tree Mid. 3:7
Oleander Nerium oleander הַרְדוֹפְנֵי river bank evergreen shrub Ḥul. 3:5
Olive Olea europaea זַיִת fruit tree Deut. 6:11; 8:8, et al.
Onion Allium cepa בָּצָל garden vegetable Num. 11:5
Orange, trifoliate Poncirus trifoliata קִדָּה לְבָנָה tropical fruit tree Kil. 1:8
Orchid Orchis sp. חַלְבְּצִין flower with edible bulb Shev. 7:2
נֵץ־הֶחָלָב Shev. 7:1
Palm, date Phoenix dactylifera תָּמָר fruit tree Ex. 15:27; Num. 33:9, et al.
דֶּקֶל Pe'ah 4:1; Shab. 14:3, et al.
Papyrus Cyperus papyrus גֹּמֶא aquatic plant Ex. 2:3; Isa. 18:2, et al.
Peach Persica vulgaris אֲפַרְסֵק fruit tree Kil. 1:4; Ma'as. 1:2
Pear Pyrus communis אַגָּס fruit tree Kil. 1:4; Uk. 1:6, et al.
קְרִיסְטוֹמֶלִין
Pear, Syrian Pyrus syriaca חִזְרָר forest tree with edible fruit Kil. 1:4
Pepper Piper nigrum פִּלְפֵּל tropical aromatic plant used as a condiment Shab. 6:5; Beẓah 2:8

Plants

Pine Pinus sp. (?)תִּדְהָר coniferous tree Isa. 41:19; 60:13
Pine, aleppo Pinus halepensis עֵץ שֶׁמֶן coniferous forest tree I Kings 6:23; Isa. 41:19, et al.
Pine, stone Pinus pinea תִּרְזָה coniferous tree with edible kernels Isa. 44:14
Pistachio Pistacia vera בָּטְנָה, בָּטְנִים fruit tree Gen. 43:11; Shev. 7:5
Plane Platanus orientalis עַרְמוֹן river bank tree Gen. 30:37; Ezek. 31:8
Pomegranate Punica granatum רִמּוֹן fruit tree Num. 20:5; Deut. 8:8, et al.
Poplar Populus euphratica צַפְצָפָה river bank tree Ezek. 17:5
Purslane Portulaca oleracea חֲלַגְלוֹגָה wild herb used as a vegetable Shev. 9:1
רְגֵלָה Shev. 7:1, 9:5, et al.
Quince Cydonia oblonga פָּרִיש fruit tree Kil. 1:4; Ma'as. 1:3, et al.
Radish Raphanus sativus צְנוֹן garden vegetable Kil. 1:5; Ma'as. 5:2, et al.
Rape Brassica napus נָפוּץ, נָפוּס garden vegetable used as forage Kil. 1:3; 1:5, et al.
Raspberry, wild Rubus sanctus סְנֶה thorny climbing shrub Ex. 3:2–4; Deut. 33:16
Reed, ditch Phragmites communis קָנֶה river bank weed Isa. 19:6, 35:7, et al.
Rice Oryza sativa אֹרֶז annual summer cereal grass Dem. 2:1; Shev. 2:7, et al.
Rocket, dyer's Reseda luteola רִכְפָּה herb whose leaves and stem yield a dye Ma'as. 5:8; Shev. 7:2
Rocket, garden Eruca sativa אֹרֹת medicinal herb II Kings 4:39
Rose Rosa, sp. וֶרֶד shrub with fragrant flowers Shev. 7:6; Ma'as. 2:5, et al.
Rue Ruta graveolens פֵּיגָם shrub used as a spice Kil. 1:8; Shev. 9:1
Safflower Carthamus tinctorius חָרִיע herb used as a spice and for Kil. 2:8; Uk. 3:5;
קוֹצָה dyeing Shev. 7:1
Saltbush Atriplex halimus מַלּוּחַ desert shrub Job 30:4
Savory Satureja thymbra סִיאָה aromatic wild plant Shev. 8:1; Ma'as. 3:9
Sesame Sesamum orientalis שֻׁמְשֹׁם plant used as a spice and yielding oil Shev. 2:7; Ḥal. 1:4, et al.
Shallot Allium ascalonicum בְּצַלְצוּל garden vegetable used for seasoning Kil. 1:3
Sorrel, garden Rumex acetosa לְעוּנִים garden vegetable Kil. 1:3
Spanish cherry Mimusops balata פַּרְסָאָה tropical fruit tree Shev. 5:1
Spelt Triticum spelta שִׁפּוֹן cereal Kil. 1:1; Ḥal. 1:1, et al.
Squill Urginea maritima חֲצוּב wild toxic onion Kil. 1:8
Storax Styrax officinalis לִבְנֶה forest tree Gen. 30:37; Hos. 4:13
Sumac Rhus coriaria אוֹג forest tree with edible fruit Pe'ah 1:5; Dem. 1:1, et al.
Tamarisk Tamarix, sp. אֵשֶׁל desert and saline tree Gen. 21:33; I Sam. 22:6, et al.
עַרְעָר Jer. 17:6; Ps. 102:18
Terebinth Pistacia palaestina אֵלָה forest tree Gen. 35:4; Hos. 4:13, et al.
Pistacia atlantica
Thistle Centaurea, sp. רַּדְרַּד prickly herb Gen. 3:18; Hos. 10:8
Thistle, golden Scolymus maculatus חוֹחַ prickly herb Hos. 9:6; Prov. 26:9, et al.
Thistle, silybum Silybum marianum קִמּוֹשׁ prickly herb Isa. 34:13; Hos. 9:6, et al.
Thistle, sow Sonchus oleraceus מָרוֹר bitter herb Ex. 12:8; Lam. 3:15, et al.
Thorn Calycotome villosa חָרוּל prickly shrub Zeph. 2:9; Job 30:7, et al.
Thorn, camel Alhagi maurorum נַעֲצוּץ prickly dwarf shrub Isa. 7:19; 55:13
Thorn, gundelia Gundelia tournefortii גַּלְגַּל prickly herb Isa. 17:13; Ps. 83:14
Thorn, poterium Poterium spinosum סִירִים prickly dwarf shrub Isa. 34:13; Hos. 2:8, et al.
סִירָה Ps. 58:10
Thorn, prosopis Prosopis farcata נַהֲלֹל prickly dwarf shrub Isa. 7:19

Plants

Thyme Thymus capitatus קוֹרָנִית aromatic dwarf shrub Shev. 8:1; Ma'as. 3:9
Tragacanth Astragalus gummifer נְכאֹת dwarf shrub yielding a Gen. 37:25; 43:11
Astragalus tragacantha fragrant resin
Truffle Ascomycetes-Tuberaceae שְׁמַרְקָעִים edible subterranean fungus Uk. 3:2
Turnip Brassica rapa לֶפֶת garden vegetable Kil. 1:3, 9, et al.
Vetch, bitter Vicia ervilia כַּרְשִׁינָה legume Ter. 11:9; Shab. 1:5, et al.
Vetch, French Vicia narbonensis סַפִּיר legume Kil. 1:1
Walnut Juglans regia אֱגוֹז fruit tree Song 6:11
Watermelon Citrullus vulgaris אֲבַטִּיחַ garden vegetable Num. 11:5
Weed, ridolfia Ridololfia segetum בָּאְשָׁה weed Job 31:40
Wheat Triticum durum cereal Ex. 9:32; Deut. 8:8; et al.
Triticum vulgare
Triticum turgidum חִטָּה
Willow Salix, sp. עֲרָבָה riverbank tree Lev. 23:40; Ps. 137:2, et al.
Woad, isatis Isatis tinctoria אִסָּטִיס herb which yields a dye Kil. 2:5; Shev. 7:1, et al.
Wormwood Artemisia, sp. לַעֲנָה desert dwarf shrub Deut. 29:17; Jer. 9:14, et al.

Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.