LIPPE (Lippe-Detmold), former state in N.W. Germany. Jews are first mentioned in 1345 when they were ordered by Bernard V to bring their cases before his ducal court and not the Feme or private courts, an order which promised them greater security. The capital, Detmold, became the leading community after Jews were permitted to settle there in 1500. In 1583, 12 Lippe families moved to Altona. During the late 17th and 18th centuries, *Court Jews, who generally controlled the tobacco monopoly, exercised broad executive power over the Jews of Lippe, filled the office of rabbi, and were court financiers as well. Though no dynasty of Court Jews established itself, Joseph Isaac was the most prominent and powerful. In 1732 complaints were lodged against the growing number of Jews. Family *names were imposed on the 175 Jewish families in the county (27 in Detmold) in 1810. Civil rights were granted in 1858 and 1879. Twelve communities were included in the regional union of communities. The number of Jews in Lippe declined from 1,024 in 1885 to 900 in 1904, 780 in 1913, and 607 (0.32% of the total population) in 1928. Until 1742 services were held in a rented prayer room; after that a barn was converted into a synagogue, and a new building was not erected until 1904. Lippe had no rabbi after 1879. After the Nazi rise to power (1933), the Jewish population came to an end through emigration, persecution, and deportation. After 1945 a small Jewish community was founded in Detmold, which was later united with the community in Herford. In 1989 the Herford-Detmold Jewish community numbered 23 and about 100 in 2005. About 90% of the members were immigrants from the former Soviet Union.
The tiny neighboring principality of Schaumburg-Lippe was notable for its dynasty of Court Jews founded by Isaak Heine, who received a letter of protection in 1682. In 1705/6 he and his cousin, Behrends *Leffmann, successfully averted an expulsion order. His family continued to serve the rulers of the principality for three generations; most distinguished of his descendants were the financier Salomon *Heine and the poet Heinrich *Heine.
A. Feilchenfeld, in: MGWJ, 43 (1899), 273f.; FJW, 419–21; AVJW (May 28, 1965), 3; Germ Jud, 2 (1968), 492; H. Schnee, Die Hoffinanz und der moderne Staat, 3 (1955), 93–124; H.H. Hasselmeier, Die Stellung der Juden in Schaumburg-Lippe von 1648 bis zur Emanzipation (1967). Add. Bibliography: J. Ehrlinger, Juedisches Leben in Westfalen und Lippe: Eine Bibliographie (Warburger Schriften, volume 20; 1995); K. Pohlmann, Juden in Lippe in Mittelalter und frueher Neuzeit. Zwischen Pogrom und Vertreibung. 1350 – 1614 (Panu derech, v. 13; 1995); D. von Faassen, "'Hier ist ein kleiner Ort und eine kleine Gegend' – Hofjuden in Lippe," in: R. Ries, J. Battenberg, J. Friedrich (eds.), Hofjuden – Oekonomie und Interkulturalitaet. Die juedische Wirtschaftselite im 18. Jahrhundert (Hamburger Beitraege zur Geschichte der deutschen Juden, vol. 25; 2002), 289–306.
[Larissa Daemmig (2nd ed.)]
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.