LANDSHUT, city in Bavaria, Germany. Jews may have lived there since its foundation in 1204, although they are first mentioned in 1256. In 1337 and 1349 atrocities were committed following the *Deggendorf and *Black Death disturbances, although Jews were found in the city once more shortly after both persecutions. A Jewish street and its neighboring gate are mentioned in 1331. A mid-14th-century parchment describes the moneylender "Feifelein," the "Jew's king," taking a Jewish *oath. While Duke Henry of Landshut protected the Jews, his son Ludwig expelled them in 1450, confiscating their valuables and canceling the debts due to them. A 15th-century Hebrew tombstone is preserved in the municipal museum. The synagogue was converted into a church in 1452. In 1810 one Jew lived in Landshut and 100 years later the town had 60 Jewish inhabitants. The number of Jews declined from 48 in 1933 to 18 in 1939. On April 2/3, 1942, 11 Jews from the town were deported east. During World War II, 200 Jews, victims of a nearby labor camp, were buried near the city.
Salfeld, Martyrol, index; R. Straus, in: ZGJD, 1 (1929), 96–118; 5 (1935), 42–49; G. Kisch, in: HJ, 1 (1938–39), 119–20; Germ Jud, 1 (1963), index; 2 (1968), 467–9; PK Germanyah.
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.