KHOREZM (Ar. Khwarizm), formerly also called Khīva, district in N.W. Uzbekistan, on the lower course of the Amu Darya River (Oxus), S. of the Aral Sea. From references in the Chronicles of the Arab historian al-Ṭabarī (838–923) to the Arab conquest of Khorezm, and from related passages in the Cambridge Document (see *Khazars), S.P. Tolstov concluded
Nevertheless it is clear that some relations existed between Khorezm and Khazaria. Caravans passed between the two countries, and a corps of some thousands of men who had originally come "from the neighborhood of Khwārizm" were stationed at the Khazar capital, *Atil, in the tenth century (according to the contemporary Arab historian, al-Masʿūdī).
M. ibn J. al-Ṭabarī, Annales: Tarīkh al-Rusul wal-Mulūk … ed. by M.J. de Goeje, ser. 1 pt. 5 (repr., 1964), 2903; ser. 2 pt. 2 (repr., 1964), 1142–43, 1236–41; cf. Fr. tr. by M.H. Zotenberg, 3 (1871), 573; 4 (1874), 177; Abu-Raiḥān al-Bīrūnī, The Chronology of Ancient Nations, tr. and ed. by C.E. Sachau (1879), 42; D.M. Dunlop, History of the Jewish Khazars (1954), index S.V. Khwārism; A.N. Poliak, Kazariyyah (1951), index; Baron, Social2, 3 (1954), 326; S. Szyszman, in: RHR, 152 (1957), 186–90; S.P. Tolstov, Po sledam drevnekharezmiyskoy tsivilizatsii (1948: Auf den Spuren der altchoresmischen Kultur, 1953), esp. chs. 9–10; idem, in: Sovetskaya etnografiya (1946), 94–104; M.I. Artamonov, Istoriya Khazar (1962), 283–7 and index; F. Altheim and R. Stiehl, in: Anales de historia antigua y medieval, 8 (1955), 56–61; idem, Finanzgeschichte der Spaetantike (1957), 264–72.
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