JOHN°, kings of Portugal.
JOHN II (1455–1495), king of Portugal from 1481; one of the most distinguished Portuguese kings, he succeeded his father Alfonso V and became a most capable, but tyrannical ruler. He harshly repressed the feudal nobility, strengthened
JOHN III (1502–1557), king of Portugal from 1521; son of Emanuel I, grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Spanish monarchs, and brother-in-law of Emperor Charles V. In 1525 David *Reuveni arrived in Portugal and succeeded in rousing the king's interest in his fantastic projects. That year John asked the pope for permission to establish the Inquisition in Portugal, but this was delayed through negotiations by the *Marranos and their supporters with the pope. However, in 1531 the king appointed the monk, Diego da Silva, head of the Inquisition in Portugal without waiting for papal authorization, which was given in 1536. In that year a tribunal of the Inquisition began activities in *Évora against the Marranos there. In 1547, after numerous Marranos had fled from Portugal, John revived the law enacted in 1499 prohibiting the Marranos from leaving the country.
M. Kayserling, Geschichte der Juden in Portugal (1876), index S.V. João; J. Mendes dos Remedios, Os Judeus em Portugal (1895), passim; N. Slouschz, Ha-Anusim be-Portugal (1932), passim; Roth, Marranos, index; Baron, Social2, 11 (1967), 245–6; 13 (1969), 47ff.
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.