HOLOCAUST


The entry is arranged according to the outline below. Bibliographies appear after sections marked (†).

THE EVENTS

    Introduction
    European Jewry in the Early 1930s
    Germany in the Early 1930s
        NAZI RACISM
        HITLER'S ASCENT TO POWER
        THE ASSAULT AGAINST THE JEWS
        JEWISH LIFE UNDER THE SWASTIKA
    The Expansion of the Reich
        THE EVIAN CONFERENCE
        THE NOVEMBER POGROMS: KRISTALLNACHT
    Enemies of the State (Non-Jewish Victims of Nazism)
    The Invasion of Poland and the Beginning of World War II
        THE IMPACT ON THE JEWS OF POLAND
        THE FIRST KILLINGS BY GAS: THE SO-CALLED EUTHANASIA PROGRAM
    Blitzkrieg, or the German Invasion of Western Europe
    Ghettoization
        JEWISH RESPONSES
        JEWISH LEADERSHIP
    The German Invasion of the Soviet Union
        EINSATZGRUPPEN
        AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT
    The Wannsee Conference
        DEATH CAMPS
        A TESTIMONY OF LIFE INSIDE THE CAMPS
    Armed Resistance
    The Fate of the Jews in Other Countries
        THE DESTRUCTION OF THE JEWS OF HUNGARY
    Rescue
    German Retreat
    Liberation
    Numbers

A HOLOCAUST CHRONOLOGY
RESPONSES

THE VICTIMS
    Behavior of the Victims
        WHO IS COMPETENT TO JUDGE THIS BEHAVIOR?
    Mass Behavior
        BEHAVIOR DURING INVASION
        BEHAVIOR DURING THE DEPORTATIONS INSIDE POLAND, 1939–41
        BEHAVIOR OF JEWS IN ISOLATION
        BEHAVIOR DURING COLLECTION OF THE DEPORTEES AND DEPORTATION TO THE DEATH CAMPS
        JEWISH BEHAVIOR IN DEATH CAMPS
    Behavior of Jewish Officials
        JEWISH COUNCILS (JUDENRAETE)
        JEWISH POLICE
    Behavior of the Active Elite
    Physical Resistance and Flight
        REVOLT
        FLIGHT FROM THE GHETTOS TO JOIN PARTISANS
        FLIGHT OF ZIONIST YOUTH
        FLIGHT FROM THE CONCENTRATION CAMPS
    Behavior of Jews in Allied Armies
    Jewish Collaboration
    Conclusions
    Spiritual Resistance in the Ghettos and Concentration Camps
        YOUTH ACTIVITIES
        NEWSPAPERS
        RELIGIOUS LIFE
        CULTURAL LIFE
        THE HOLOCAUST AND THE HALAKHAH †
THE WORLD
        THE UNITED STATES
            Bystander, Abandonment, Acquiescence
            The American Jewish Press
        GREAT BRITAIN
            Refugees
            Liberation of Bergen-Belsen
        CANADA
        THE CATHOLIC CHURCH
            After the War
            Jewish Children
            The Kielce Pogrom
            Changes in Catholic-Jewish Relations since the Holocaust
        THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES
            Germany
            German-Allied and -Occupied Countries
            The Allies, Neutral Countries, and International Organizations
            Postwar Statements
        ORTHODOX CHURCHES †
        THE YISHUV †

AFTERMATH

    Displaced Persons
    U.S. Army Chaplains
    Postwar Trials
        FURTHER TRIALS
    Children of Jewish Survivors
        INTRODUCTION
        EARLY RESEARCH ON CHILDREN OF SURVIVORS
        RESEARCH ON CHILDREN OF SURVIVORS: SECOND STAGE
        SEARCH FOR MEANING †

LESSONS

    Singularity of the Holocaust
    Jewish Faith after the Holocaust
        INTRODUCTION
        RICHARD RUBENSTEIN (1924– )
        EMIL FACKENHEIM (1916–2003)
        IRVING (YITZ) GREENBERG (1933– )
        ARTHUR A. COHEN (1928–1986), HANS JONAS (1903–1993), AND MELISSA RAPHAEL
        IGNAZ MAYBAUM (1897–1976)
        ELIEZER BERKOVITS (1908–1992)
        EMMANUEL LEVINAS (1906–1995) AND AMOS FUNKENSTEIN (1937–1995)
        ELIE WIESEL (1928– )
        CONCLUSION †
    Impact of the Holocaust

MEMORY

    Holocaust Literature in European Languages
        DIARIES AND JOURNALS
        LITERATURE AND THE LANGUAGE OF THE VICTIMS
        MEMOIRS OF SURVIVORS
        DOCUMENTATION AS ART
        VICARIOUS RECONSTRUCTION OF EXPERIENCE
        LITERATURE OF SURVIVAL
        THE HOLOCAUST IN THE CONTINUUM OF JEWISH HISTORY
        THE HOLOCAUST AS AN APOCALYPTIC EVENT
        ART AS THE REDEMPTION OF MEANING
        INTO THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY †
    Historiography of the Holocaust
    Holocaust Studies
        GERMANY
        ISRAEL
        UNITED STATES
        WESTERN, CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE
        TRENDS IN THE FIELD
    Documentation, Education, and Resource Centers
        IN THE UNITED STATES
        IN GERMANY
        IN ISRAEL
        IN AUSTRIA
        IN FRANCE
        IN POLAND
        IN BRITAIN
        IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
    Memorials and Monuments
    Museums
        THE "WHERE" DIMENSION
        THE REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT
        THE "WHAT" AND "HOW" DIMENSIONS
        CONCLUSION
        LIST OF HOLOCAUST MUSEUMS
    Film
    Survivor Testimonies

EDUCATION

    In the United States
        THE EARLY YEARS (1945–67)
        THE MIDDLE YEARS (1967–93)
        THE LATER YEARS (FROM 1993)
            The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Beit Hashoah Museum of Tolerance, and Schindler's List
            The National Diffusion Network: Two Unique Holocaust Education Programs
        HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
            Reception of the Various Curricula, Mandates, and Programs
            Research
        HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN CATHOLIC SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES
        CONCLUSION †
    In Israel
    In Germany
    In Sweden
    The Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research

A PICTORIAL HISTORY OF THE HOLOCAUST

Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.