HA-KIBBUTZ HA-ME'UḤAD


HA-KIBBUTZ HA-ME'UḤAD, a union of kibbutzim in Israel founded at a conference in Petaḥ Tikvah in 1927 by the first "large" kevuẓot, established primarily by pioneers of the Third Aliyah, including previous groups of *Gedud ha-Avodah ("Labor Legion"). In 1951 a split occurred in its ranks due to political and ideological tensions between *Mapai and the left-wing *Aḥdut ha-Avodah. The split led to the breakup of kibbutzim, the establishment of new kibbutzim, and large-scale population movement between kibbutzim. The Mapai-oriented members seceded, eventually founding the *Iḥud ha-Kevuẓot ve-ha-Kibbutzim. During the 1960s and the 1970s, the two movements became politically closer, until their reunion in "Takam" (the united kibbutz movement) in 1980. In 1970, Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad numbered about 60 kibbutzim with a population of about 25,000–30,000. In 1980, Takam included 154 settlements with a population of 73,370. Its kibbutzim owned 206 industries and accounted for 40% of agricultural production in Israel. In 1996 the movement numbered 173 settlements with a population of 80,000. In 2000 it united with Kibbutz ha-Arẓi ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir to form the *Kibbutz Movement. The movement had close connections with two youth movements – Ha-Maḥanot ha-Olim and *Ha-No'ar ha-Oved ve-ha-Lomed. Day-to-day activity in Takam was in the hands of an executive committee. The highest institution of the movement is the general assembly, where each kibbutz has at least one representative. The movement sponsored a wide range of social and cultural activities.

For further details see *Kibbutz Movement, Ha-Kibbutz Ha-Me'uḥad.

[Shaked Gilboa (2nd ed.)]


Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.