HA-KIBBUTZ HA-ARẒI HA-SHOMER HA-ẒA'IR
HA-KIBBUTZ HA-ARẒI HA-SHOMER HA-ẒA'IR, a union of kibbutzim in Israel, founded in 1927 by the first collective settlements of *Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir pioneers. It regards itself as an avant-garde nucleus of the future socialist society in Israel and adheres strictly to the principles of collective life of its members and the collective education of their children. The first settlers arrived in Israel in 1919, and in 1922 established Bet Alfa, the first kibbutz of the movement. In 1936 the movement joined forces with the Socialist League and the two founded Mifleget Po'alim-Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓair in 1946. In 1948 the new party united with *Aḥdut ha-Avodah-Po'alei Zion to form *Mapam. New kibbutzim continued to be established into the statehood period. In 1970, Ha-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi comprised 75 kibbutzim with a population of about 30,000, while in the mid-1990s it numbered 85 kibbutzim. In 2000 it united with the second secular kibbutz movement, Ha-Tenu'ah ha-Kibbutzit ha-Me'uḥedet (Takam) to create the *Kibbutz Movement, now comprising 244 kibbutzim with a population of 115,600. Ha-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir emphasized ideological unity and mutual economic aid among its member kibbutzim. It established the Kibbutz Arẓi Choir, the Sifriat Hapoalim press, and the daily Mishmar, which later became *Al-ha-Mishmar and continued to appear until 1995.
For further details see *Kibbutz Movement, Ha-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir.
[Shaked Gilboa (2nd ed.)]
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.