GLUECKSTADT, town in Schleswig-Holstein, N.W. Germany; until 1864 under Danish rule. It was founded in 1616 by Christian IV of Denmark who in 1619 granted special privileges to induce a group of Hamburg Jews to settle there. By 1650, 130 Sephardi Jews had taken residence in the town. They opened a sugar refinery, a soap factory, and saltworks, and were active in foreign trade. The leader of the newly settled Sephardi community, Albertus *Denis, received permission to operate a mint. The Jews, known as members of the "Portuguese nation," had two representatives on the city council, and possessed a synagogue, school, cemetery, and printing press. The first rabbi was Abraham de Fonseca, who later moved to Hamburg. Due to the rising prosperity of *Altona, the city declined economically in the early 18th century and many Jews left; their privileges lapsed in 1732. Although the synagogue was completely rebuilt in 1767 only 20 families remained by then. The last rabbi died in 1813, and the synagogue was dismantled in 1895.
Cassuto, in: JJLG, 21 (1930), 287–317; idem, in: Jahrbuch fuer die juedischen Gemeinden Schleswig-Holsteins, 2 (1930–31), 110–8; H. Kellenbenz, Sephardim an der unteren Elbe (1958), index; M. Grunwald, Portugiesengraeber auf deutscher Erde (1902), index; Baron, Social2, 14 (1969), 278ff.
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.