FALTICENI (Rom. Fălticeni), town in Moldavia, N.E. Romania. The first Jews settled there between 1772 and 1774, and an organized community existed from 1780, when the town was officially founded under the name of Şoldăneşti, later changed to Fălticeni, as a commercial center between Austrian Bukovina and Moldavia. In 1781 the landowner permitted the building of a synagogue in the form of a regular house and put a plot for a cemetery at the disposal of the community. Many
There were 4,020 Jews living in Falticeni in 1941, about one-third of the total population. Under the Fascist regime (September 1940–January 1941) a "Green House" was set up in the center of town, where Jewish merchants were brought and tortured until they agreed to pay for their release. On the eve of war with the Soviet Union (June 1941), a German headquarters was set up in the town and the synagogues were expropriated to be used as military barracks. All male Jews were concentrated in camps, from which 1,000 were sent on to Bessarabia for forced labor; those wealthy enough were able to ransom themselves. More Jews were sent on forced labor far from their homes, where a number perished in the harsh conditions. Falticeni was evacuated in the spring of 1944, at the approach of the Soviet Army. The Jews took refuge in Suceava and Botosani and returned six months later to find their houses stripped of all their possessions. By the time the other inhabitants had returned, the Jews had succeeded in restoring public services both in the town itself and throughout the district.
The Jewish population numbered 4,700 in 1947, but decreased to 3,000 in 1950. In 1944–48 a Jewish secondary school functioned. In 1969 there were about 150 families with one synagogue. In 1994, 51 Jews lived in Falticeni. In Israel there is an organization of Jews from Falticeni.
A. Gorovei, Folticeni (1938); PK Romanyah, 188–92; E. Schwarzfeld, in: Egalitatea, 22 (1911), 162–3, 170–1, 178–9, 186–7, 194–5; idem, Împopularea, reîmpopularea şi întemeierea tîrgurilor şi tîrguşoarelor din Moldova (1914), 24–26; M. Schwarzfeld, in: Analele Societăţii Istorice Iuliu Barasch, 2, pt. 1 (1888), 65, 73; W. Filderman, in: Sliha, 1 no. 3(1956), 3; 1 no. 4(1956), 3. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: O. Bacalu, D. Rimer, and N. Vaintraub (eds.), Fălticeni (1995).
[Theodor Lavi /
Lucian-Zeev Herscovici (2nd ed.)]
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.