DAMANHŪR, name of several Egyptian cities in the Middle Ages. One Damanhūr is referred to by Maimonides in his responsa as a major community in Egypt at his time. He together with other dayyanim decreed that anybody could marry or divorce a woman in Damanhūr without the permission of Rabbi Halfon (Bar Ula), the dayyan of Damanhūr. It would appear that the reference is to the present Damanhūr, which is the principal city of the Buḥayra province. This Jewish community remained in existence until modern times. In the 19th century the community was subordinated to the Jewish court of law in Alexandria. In 1901 the rabbis of Cairo visited Damanhūr and declared there the new Qisushin regulation. In the 19th century
Mann, Egypt, 2 (1922), 317; E. Ashtor, in: JJS, 19 (1968), 7. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ashtor, Toledot, 1 (1944), 32, 326; 2 (1951), 358ff.; 3 (1970); J.M. Landau, Jews in Nineteenth-Century Egypt (1969), index; idem (ed.), Toledot ha-Yehudim be-Miẓrayim ba-Tekufah ha-Ottemanit (1988), index.
[Eliyahu Ashtor /
Leah Bornstein-Makovetsky (2nd ed.)]
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.