COMMANDMENTS, THE 613


COMMANDMENTS, THE 613 (Heb. תַּרְיַ״ג מִצְווֹת, taryag mitzvot). The total number of biblical commandments (precepts and prohibitions) is given in rabbinic tradition as 613. R. Simlai, a Palestinian teacher, states: "613 commandments were revealed to Moses at Sinai, 365 being prohibitions equal in number to the solar days, and 248 being mandates corresponding in number to the limbs of the human body" (Mak. 23b). (See the table "613 Commandments.") The number 613 usually known by the Hebrew mnemonic, תַּרְיַ״ג (Ta-RYa-G – ג = 3 ,10 = י ,200 = ר ,400 = ת), is found as early as tannaitic times in the sayings of Simeon b. Eleazar (Mekh. Yitro, Ba-Ḥodesh, 5, only in ed. by I.H. Weiss (1865), 74 [75a]), Simeon b. Azzai (Sif. Deut 76 where the 365 prohibitions are mentioned), and Eleazar b. Yose the Galilean (Mid. Hag. to Gen. 15:1) and is apparently based upon an ancient tradition (see Tanh. B.,

A list of the commandments as enumerated by Maimonides. The subheadings do not appear in Sefer ha-Mitzvot but are added here as a guide to the general reader. A list of the commandments as enumerated by Maimonides. The subheadings do not appear in Sefer ha-Mitzvot but are added here as a guide to the general reader. It should be noted that the biblical sources are given according to the rabbinic interpretation, which is sometimes not the obvious meaning of the verse cited.

MANDATORY COMMANDMENTS
God
1. Ex. 20:2
3. Deut. 6:5
4. Deut. 6:13
6. Deut. 10:20
7. Deut. 10:20
9. Lev. 22:32
The Jew is required to 1believe that God exists and to 2acknowledge His unity; to 3love, 4fear, and 5serve Him. He is also commanded to 6cleave to Him (by associating with and imitating the wise) and to 7swear only by His name. One must 8imitate God and 9sanctify His name. 2. Deut. 6:4
5. Ex. 23:25;
Deut. 11:13
(Deut. 6:13 and also 13:5)
8. Deut. 28:9
Torah
10. Deut. 6:7
11. Deut. 6:7
12. Deut. 6:8
13. Deut. 6:8
16. Deut. 31:12
17. Deut. 17:18
18. Deut. 31:19
The Jew must 10recite the Shema each morning and evening and 11study the Torah and teach it to others. He should bind tefillin on his 12head and 13his arm. He should make 14ẓiẓit for his garments and 15fix a mezuzah on the door. The people are to be 16assembled every seventh year to hear the Torah read and 17the king must write a special copy of the Torah for himself. 18Every Jew should have a Torah scroll. One should 19praise God after eating. 14. Num. 15:38
15. Deut. 6:9
19. Deut. 8:10.
Temple and the Priests
20. Ex. 25:8
22. Num. 18:4
24. Ex. 30:19
25. Ex. 27:21
26. Num. 6:23
30. Lev. 6:3
31. Num. 5:2
33. Ex. 28:2
34. Num. 7:9
35. Ex. 30:31
The Jews should 20build a Temple and 21respect it. It must be 22guarded at all times and the 23Levites should perform their special duties in it. Before entering the Temple or participating in its service, the priests 24must wash their hands and feet; they must also 25light the candelabrum daily. The priests are required to 26bless Israel and to 27set the shewbread and frankincense before the Ark. Twice daily they must 28burn the incense on the golden altar. Fire shall be kept burning on the altar 29continually and the ashes should be 30removed daily. Ritually unclean persons must be 31kept out of the Temple. Israel 32should honor its priests, who must be 33dressed in special priestly raiment. The priests should 34carry the Ark on their shoulders, and the holy anointing oil 35must be prepared according to its special formula. The priestly families should officiate in 36rotation. In honor of certain dead close relatives, the priests should 37make themselves ritually unclean. The high priest may marry 38only a virgin. 21. Lev. 19:30
23. Num. 18:23
27. Ex. 25:30
28. Ex. 30:7
29. Lev. 6:6
32. Lev. 21:8
36. Deut. 18:6–8
37. Lev. 21:2–3
38. Lev. 21:13
Sacrifices
39. Num. 28:3
41. Num. 28:9
43. Lev. 23:36
44. Lev. 23:10
46. Lev. 23:17
49. Lev. 16
50. Num. 29:13
51. Num. 29:36
The 39tamid sacrifice must be offered twice daily and the 40high priest must also offer a meal-offering twice daily. An additional sacrifice (musaf) should be offered 41every Sabbath, 42on the first of every month, and 43on each of the seven days of Passover. On the second day of Passover 44a meal offering of the first barley must also be brought. On Shavuot a 45musaf must be offered and 46two loaves of bread as a wave offering. The additional sacrifice must also be made on 47Rosh Ha-Shanah and 48on the Day of Atonement when the 49Avodah must also be performed. On every day of the festival of 50Sukkot a musaf must be brought as well as on the 51eighth day thereof.
Every male Jew should make a 52pilgrimage to the Temple three times
40. Lev. 6:13
42. Num. 28:11
45. Num. 28:26–27
47. Num. 29:1–2
48. Num. 29:7–8
52. Ex. 23:14

Commandments, The 613

53. Ex. 34:23
Deut. 16:16
55. Ex. 12:6
56. Ex. 12:8
57. Num. 9:11
59. Num. 10:10; Num.
10:9.
60. Lev. 22:27
62. Lev. 2:13
64. Lev. 6:18
66. Lev. 3:1
68. Lev. 4:13
69. Lev. 4:27
70. Lev. 5:17–18
71. Lev. 5:15, 21–25;
19:20–21
73. Num. 5:6–7
74. Lev. 15:13–15
76. Lev. 12:6
78. Lev. 27:32
80. Ex. 22:28; Num.
18:15
83. Deut. 12:5–5
84. Deut. 12:14
85. Deut. 12:26
86. Deut. 12:15
87. Lev. 27:33
89. Ex. 29:33
91. Lev. 7:17
a year and 53appear there during the three pilgrim Festivals. One should 54rejoice on the Festivals.
On the 14th of Nisan one should 55slaughter the paschal lamb and 56eat of its roasted flesh on the night of the 15th. Those who were ritually impure in Nisan should slaughter the paschal lamb on 57the 14th of Iyyar and eat it with 58maẓẓah and bitter herbs.
Trumpets should be 59sounded when the festive sacrifices are brought and also in times of tribulation.
Cattle to be sacrificed must be 60at least eight days old and 61without blemish. All offerings must be 62salted. It is a mitzvah to perform the ritual of 63the burnt offering, 64the sin offering, 65the guilt offering, 66the peace offering, and 67the meal offering.
Should the Sanhedrin err in a decision, its members 68must bring a sin offering which offering must also be brought 69by a person who has unwittingly transgressed a karet prohibition (i.e., one which, if done deliberately, would incur karet). When in doubt as to whether one has transgressed such a prohibition, a 70"suspensive" guilt offering must be brought.
For 71stealing or swearing falsely and for other sins of a like nature, a guilt offering must be brought. In special circumstances the sin offering 72can be according to one's means.
One must 73confess one's sins before God and repent for them.
A 74man or 75a woman who has a seminal issue must bring a sacrifice; a woman must also bring a sacrifice 76after childbirth. A leper must 77bring a sacrifice after he has been cleansed.
One must 78tithe one's cattle. The 79firstborn of clean (i.e., permitted) cattle are holy and must be sacrificed. The firstborn of man must be 80redeemed. The firstborn of the ass must be 81redeemed; if not, 82its neck has to be broken.
Animals set aside as offerings 83must be brought to Jerusalem without delay and 84may be sacrificed only in the Temple. Offerings from outside the land of Israel 85may also be brought to the Temple.
Sanctified animals 86which have become blemished must be redeemed. A beast exchanged for an offering 87is also holy.
The priests should eat 88the remainder of the meal offering and 89the flesh of sin and guilt offerings; but consecrated flesh which has become 90ritually unclean or 91which was not eaten within its appointed time must be burned.
54. Deut. 16:14
58. Num. 9:11;
Ex. 12:8
61. Lev. 22:21
63. Lev. 1:2
65. Lev. 7:1
67. Lev. 2:1; 6:7
72. Lev. 5:1–11
75. Lev. 15:28–29
77. Lev. 14:10
79. Ex. 13:2
81. Ex. 34:20
82. Ex. 13:13
88. Lev. 6:9
90. Lev. 7:19
Vows
92. Num. 6:5
93. Num. 6:18
94. Deut. 23:24
A Nazirite must 92let his hair grow during the period of his separation. When that period is over, he must 93shave his head and bring his sacrifice.
A man must 94honor his vows and his oaths which a judge can 95annul only in accordance with the law.
95. Num. 30:3.
Ritual Purity
96. Lev. 11:8, and 24
98. Lev. 11:34
100. Lev. 12:2
101. Lev. 13:3
Anyone who touches 96a carcass or 97one of the eight species of reptiles becomes ritually unclean; food becomes unclean by 98coming into contact with a ritually unclean object. Menstruous women 99and those 100bedridden after childbirth are ritually impure. A 101leper, 102a leprous garment, and 103a leprous house are all ritually unclean. A man having 97. Lev. 11:29–31
99. Lev. 15:19
102. Lev. 13:51
103. Lev. 14:44

Commandments, The 613

105. Lev. 15:16
106. Lev. 15:19
107. Num. 19:14
109. Lev. 15:16
110. Lev. 14:2
113. Num. 19:2–9
104a running issue is unclean, as is 105semen. A woman suffering from 106running issue is also impure. A 107human corpse is ritually unclean. The purification water (mei niddah) purifies 108the unclean, but it makes the clean ritually impure. It is a mitzvah to become ritually clean 109by ritual immersion. To become cleansed of leprosy, one 110must follow the specified procedure and also 111shave off all of one's hair. Until cleansed, the leper 112must be bareheaded with clothing in disarray so as to be easily distinguishable.
The ashes of 113the red heifer are to be used in the process of ritual purification.
104. Lev. 15:2
108. Num. 19:13, 21
111. Lev. 14:9
112. Lev. 13:45
Donations to the Temple
114. Lev. 27:2–8
116. Lev. 27:14
118. Lev. 5:16
119. Lev. 19:24
121. Lev. 19:9
124. Lev. 19:10
125. Ex. 23:19
127. Lev. 27:30;
Num. 18:24
130. Deut. 14:28
131. Deut. 26:13
133. Num. 15:20
If a person 114undertakes to give his own value to the Temple, he must do so. Should a man declare 115an unclean beast, 116a house, or 117a field as a donation to the Temple, he must give their value in money as fixed by the priest. If one unwittingly derives benefit from Temple property, 118full restitution plus a fifth must be made.
The fruit of 119the fourth year's growth of trees is holy and may be eaten only in Jerusalem. When you reap your fields, you must leave 120the corners, 121the gleanings, 122the forgotten sheaves, 123the misformed bunches of grapes, and 124the gleanings of the grapes for the poor.
The first fruits must be 125separated and brought to the Temple and you must also 126separate the great heave offering (terumah) and give it to the priests. You must give 127one tithe of your produce to the Levites and separate 128a second tithe which is to be eaten only in Jerusalem. The Levites 129must give a tenth of their tithe to the priests.
In the third and sixth years of the seven-year cycle, you should 130separate a tithe for the poor instead of the second tithe. A declaration 131must be recited when separating the various tithes and 132when bringing the first fruits to the Temple.
The first portion of the 133dough must be given to the priest.
115. Lev. 27:11–12
117. Lev. 27:16, 22–23
120. Lev. 19:9
122. Deut. 24:19
123. Lev. 19:10
126. Deut. 18:4
128. Deut. 14:22
129. Num. 18:26
132. Deut. 26:5
The Sabbatical Year
134. Ex. 23:11
135. Ex. 34:21
136. Lev. 25:10
139. Lev. 25:29–30
140. Lev. 25:8.
141. Deut. 15:3
In the seventh year (shemittah) everything that grows is 134ownerless and available to all; the fields 135must lie fallow and you may not till the ground. You must 136sanctify the Jubilee year (50th) and on the Day of Atonement in that year 137you must sound the shofar and set all Hebrew slaves free. In the Jubilee year all land is to be 138returned to its ancestral owners and, generally, in a walled city 139the seller has the right to buy back a house within a year of its sale.
Starting from entry into the land of Israel, the years of the Jubilee must be 140counted and announced yearly and septennially.
In the seventh year 141all debts are annulled but 142one may exact a debt owed by a foreigner.
137. Lev. 25:9
138. Lev. 25:24
142. Deut. 15:3
Concerning Animals for Consumption
145. Lev. 27:21, 28
146. Deut. 12:21
When you slaughter an animal, you must 143give the priest his share as you must also give him 144the first of the fleece. When a man makes a ḥerem (a special vow), you must 145distinguish between that which belongs to the Temple (i.e., when God's name was mentioned in the vow) and between that which goes to the priests. To be fit for consumption, beast and fowl must be 146slaughtered according to the 143. Deut. 18:3
144. Deut. 18:4

Commandments, The 613

148. Deut. 22:7
150. Deut. 14:11
law, and if they are not of a domesticated species, 147their blood must be covered with earth after slaughter.
Set the parent bird 148free when taking the nest. Examine 149beast, 150fowl, 151locusts, and 152fish to determine whether they are permitted for consumption.
147. Lev. 17:13.
149. Lev. 11:2
151. Lev. 11:21
152. Lev. 11:9
Festivals
153. Ex. 12:2
Deut. 16:1
156. Ex. 12:15
157. Ex. 13:8
159. Ex. 12:16
161. Lev. 23:35
162. Lev. 23
164. Lev. 16:29
166. Lev. 23:35
169. Lev. 23:40
The Sanhedrin should 153sanctify the first day of every month and reckon the years and the seasons. You must 154rest on the Sabbath day and 155declare it holy at its onset and termination. On the 14thof Nisan 156remove all leaven from your ownership and on the night of the 15th 157relate the story of the exodus from Egypt; on that night 158you must also eat maẓẓah. On the 159first and 160seventh days of Passover you must rest. Starting from the day of the first sheaf (16thof Nisan), you shall 161count 49 days. You must rest on 162Shavuot and on 163Rosh Ha-Shanah; on the Day of Atonement you must 164fast and 165rest. You must also rest on 166the first and 167the eighth day of Sukkot during which festival you shall 168dwell in booths and 169take the four species. On Rosh Ha-Shanah 170you are to hear the sound of the shofar. 154. Ex. 23:12
155. Ex. 20:8
158. Ex. 12:18
160. Ex. 12:16
163. Lev. 23:24
165. Lev. 16:29, 31
167. Lev. 23:36
168. Lev. 23:42
170. Num. 29:1
Community
171. Ex. 30:12–13
172. Deut. 18:15
175. Ex. 23:2
176. Deut. 16:18
180. Deut. 19:19
181. Deut. 21:4
183. Num. 35:2
Every male should 171give half a shekel to the Temple annually. You must 172obey a prophet and 173appoint a king. You must also 174obey the Sanhedrin; in the case of division, 175yield to the majority. Judges and officials shall be 176appointed in every town and they shall judge the people 177impartially.
Whoever is aware of evidence 178must come to court to testify. Witnesses shall be 179examined thoroughly and, if found to be false, 180shall have done to them what they intended to do to the accused. When a person is found murdered and the murderer is unknown, the ritual of 181decapitating the heifer must be performed.
Six cities of refuge should be 182established. The Levites, who have no ancestral share in the land, shall 183be given cities to live in. You must 184build a fence around your roof and remove potential hazards from your home.
173. Deut. 17:15
174. Deut. 17:11
177. Lev. 19:15
178. Lev. 5:1
179. Deut. 13:15
182. Deut. 19:3
184. Deut. 22:8
Idolatry
186. Deut. 13:17
187. Deut. 20:17
Idolatry and its appurtenances 185must be destroyed, and a city which has become perverted must be 186treated according to the law. You are commanded to 187destroy the seven Canaanite nations, and 188to blot out the memory of Amalek, and 189to remember what they did to Israel. 185. Deut. 12:2; 7:5
188. Deut. 25:19
189. Deut. 25:17
War
190. Deut. 20:11–12
191. Deut. 20:2
193. Deut. 23:14
The regulations for wars other than those commanded in the Torah 190are to be observed and a priest should be 191appointed for special duties in times of war. The military camp must be 192kept in a sanitary condition. To this end, every soldier must be 193equipped with the necessary implements. 192. Deut. 23:14–15
Social
194. Lev. 5:23
196. Deut. 15:14
197. Ex. 22:24
Stolen property must be 194restored to its owner. Give 195charity to the poor. When a Hebrew slave goes free, the owner must 196give him gifts. Lend to 197the poor without interest; to the foreigner you may 198lend at 195. Deut. 15:8;
Lev. 25:35–36
198. Deut. 23:21

Commandments, The 613

200. Deut. 24:15
201. Deut. 23:25–26
203. Deut. 22:4
205. Lev. 19:17
206. Lev. 19:18
208. Lev. 19:36
interest. Restore 199a pledge to its owner if he needs it. Pay the worker his wages 200on time; 201permit him to eat of the produce with which he is working. You must 202help unload an animal when necessary, and also 203help load man or beast. Lost property 204must be restored to its owner. You are required 205to reprove the sinner but you must 206love your fellow as yourself. You are commanded 207to love the proselyte. Your weights and measures 208must be accurate. 199. Deut. 24:13;
Ex. 22:25
202. Ex. 23:5
204. Deut. 22:1;
Ex. 23:4
207. Deut. 10:19
Family
209. Lev. 19:32
212. Gen. 1:28
213. Deut. 24:1
214. Deut. 24:5
215. Gen. 17:10;
Lev. 12:3
217. Deut. 25:9
218. Deut. 22:29
219. Deut. 22:18–19
220. Ex. 22:15–23
222. Deut. 24:1
Respect the 209wise; 210honor and 211fear your parents.
You should 212perpetuate the human race by marrying 213according to the law. A bridegroom is to 214rejoice with his bride for one year. Male children must 215be circumcised. Should a man die childless, his brother must either 216marry his widow or 217release her (halizah). He who violates a virgin must 218marry her and may never divorce her. If a man unjustly accuses his wife of premarital promiscuity, 219he shall be flogged, and may never divorce her. The seducer 220must be punished according to the law. The female captive must be 221treated in accordance with her special regulations. Divorce can be executed 222only by means of a written document. A woman suspected of adultery 223has to submit to the required test.
210. Ex. 20:12
211. Lev. 19:3
216. Deut. 25:5
221. Deut. 21:11
223. Num. 5:15–2.7
Judicial
224. Deut. 25:2
226. Ex. 21:20
227. Ex. 21:16
230. Deut. 21:22
When required by the law, 224you must administer the punishment of flogging and you must 225exile the unwitting homicide. Capital punishment shall be by 226the sword, 227strangulation, 228fire, or 229stoning, as specified. In some cases the body of the executed 230shall be hanged, but it 231must be brought to burial the same day. 225. Num. 35:25
228. Lev. 20:14
229. Deut. 22:24
231. Deut. 21:23
Slaves
232. Ex. 21:2
234. Ex. 21:8
235. Lev. 25:46
Hebrew slaves 232must be treated according to the special laws for them. The master should 233marry his Hebrew maidservant or 234redeem her. The alien slave 235must be treated according to the regulations applying to him. 233. Ex. 21:8
Torts
236. Ex. 21:18
237. Ex. 21:28
240. Ex. 22:4
242. Ex. 22:6–8
243. Ex. 22:9–12
245. Lev. 25:14
246. Ex. 22:8
The applicable law must be administered in the case of injury caused by 236a person, 237an animal, or 238a pit. Thieves 239must be punished. You must render judgment in cases of 240trespass by cattle, 241arson, 242embezzlement by an unpaid guardian and in claims against 243a paid guardian, a hirer, or 244a borrower. Judgment must also be rendered in disputes arising out of 245sales, 248inheritance, and 246other matters generally. You are required to 247rescue the persecuted even if it means killing his oppressor. 238. Ex. 21:33–34
239. Ex. 21:37–22:3
241. Ex. 22:5
244. Ex. 22:13
248. Num. 27:8
247. Deut. 25:12
PROHIBITIONS
Idolatry and Related Practices
1. Ex. 20:3
2. Ex. 20:4
4. Ex. 20:20
It is 1forbidden to believe in the existence of any but the One God. You may not make images 2for yourself or 3for others to worship or for 4any other purpose. You must not worship anything but God either 3. Lev. 19:4

Commandments, The 613

5. Ex. 20:5
7. Lev. 18:21
8. Lev. 19:31
10. Lev. 19:4
11. Deut. 16:22
13. Deut. 16:21
14. Ex. 23:13
15. Ex. 23:13
17. Deut. 13:9
18. Deut. 13:9
21. Deut. 13:9
22. Deut. 7:25
24. Deut. 13:18
26. Deut. 18:20
27. Deut. 18:20
29. Deut. 18:22
30. Lev. 20:23
33. Deut. 18:10–11
34. Deut. 18:10–11
35. Deut. 18:10–11
37. Deut. 18:10–11
40. Deut. 22:5
42. Deut. 22:11
45. Deut. 16:1;
Deut. 14:1; 45.
also Lev. 19:28
in 5the manner prescribed for His worship or 6in its own manner of worship.
Do not 7sacrifice children to Molech.
You may not 8practice necromancy or 9resort to "familiar spirits"; neither should you take idolatry or its mythology 10seriously.
It is forbidden to construct a 11pillar or 12dais even for the worship of God or to 13plant trees in the Temple.
You may not 14swear by idols or instigate an idolator to do so, nor may you encourage or persuade any 15non-Jew or 16Jew to worship idols. You must not 17listen to or love anyone who disseminates idolatry nor 18should you withhold yourself from hating him. Do not 19pity such a person. If somebody tries to convert you to idolatry, 20do not defend him or 21conceal the fact.
It is forbidden to 22derive any benefit from the ornaments of idols. You may not 23rebuild that which has been destroyed as a punishment for idolatry nor may you 24have any benefit from its wealth. Do not 25use anything connected with idols or idolatry.
It is forbidden 26to prophesy in the name of idols or prophesy 27falsely in the name of God. Do not 28listen to the one who prophesies for idols and do not 29fear the false prophet or hinder his execution.
You must not 30imitate the ways of idolators or practice their customs; 31divination, 32soothsaying, 33enchanting, 34sorcery, 35charming, 36consulting ghosts or 37familiar spirits, and 38necromancy are forbidden. Women must not 39wear male clothing nor men 40that of women. Do not 41tattoo yourself in the manner of the idolators.
You may not wear 42garments made of both wool and linen nor may you shave (with a razor) the sides of 43your head or 44your beard. Do not 45lacerate yourself over your dead.
6. Ex. 20:5
9. Lev. 19:31
12. Lev. 20:1
16. Deut. 13:12
19. Deut. 13:9
20. Deut. 13:9
23. Deut. 13:17
25. Deut. 7:26
28. Deut. 13:3, 4;
Deut. 13:4
31. Lev. 19:26; Deut. 18:10
32. Deut. 18:10
36. Deut. 18:10–11
38. Deut. 18:10–11
39. Deut. 22:5
41. Lev. 19:28
43. Lev. 19:27
44. Lev. 19:27
Prohibitions Resulting from Historical Events
46. Deut. 17:16
47. Num. 15:39
49. Deut. 20:16
50. Deut. 7:2
52. Deut. 7:3
55. Deut. 23:8
57. Deut. 20:19
58. Deut. 7:21
It is forbidden to return to Egypt to 46dwell there permanently or to 47indulge in impure thoughts or sights. You may not 48make a pact with the seven Canaanite nations or 49save the life of any member of them. Do not 50show mercy to idolators, 51permit them to dwell in the land of Israel, or 52intermarry with them. A Jewess may not 53marry an Ammonite or Moabite even if he converts to Judaism but should not refuse (for reasons of genealogy alone) 54a descendant of Esau or 55an Egyptian who are proselytes. It is prohibited to 56make peace with the Ammonite or Moabite nations.
The 57destruction of fruit trees even in times of war is forbidden as is wanton waste at any time. Do not 58fear the enemy and do not 59forget the evil done by Amalek.
48. Ex. 23:32; Deut. 7:2
51. Ex. 23:33
53. Deut. 23:4
54. Deut. 23:8
56. Deut. 23:7
59. Deut. 25:19
Blasphemy
60. Lev. 24:16;
rather Ex. 22:27
62. Ex. 20:7
64. Deut. 6:16
65. Deut. 12:4
You must not 60blaspheme the Holy Name, 61break an oath made by It, 62take It in vain or 63profane It. Do not 64try the Lord God. You may not 65erase God's name from the holy texts or destroy institutions devoted to His worship. Do not 66allow the body of of one hanged to remain so overnight. 61. Lev. 19:12
63. Lev. 22:32
66. Deut. 21:23

Commandments, The 613

Temple
67. Num. 18:5
68. Lev. 16:2
69. Lev. 21:23
71. Lev. 21:18
74. Num. 18:4
77. Num. 5:3
80. Ex. 20:26
83. Ex. 30:32
84. Ex. 30:32
85. Ex. 30:37
86. Ex. 25:15
88. Ex. 28:32
Be not 67lax in guarding the Temple.
The high priest must not enter the Temple 68indiscriminately; a priest with a physical blemish may not 69enter there at all or 70serve in the sanctuary, and even if the blemish is of a temporary nature, he may not 71participate in the service there until it has passed.
The Levites and the priests must not 72interchange in their functions. Intoxicated persons may not 73enter the sanctuary or teach the Law. It is forbidden for 74non-priests, 75unclean priests, or 76priests who have performed the necessary ablution but are still within the time limit of their uncleanness to serve in the Temple. No unclean person may enter 77the Temple or 78the Temple Mount.
The altar must not be made of 79hewn stones nor may the ascent to it be by 80steps. The fire on it may not be 81extinguished nor may any other but the specified incense be 82burned on the golden altar. You may not 83manufacture oil with the same ingredients and in the same proportions as the anointing oil which itself 84may not be misused. Neither may you 85compound incense with the same ingredients and in the same proportions as that burned on the altar. You must not 86remove the staves from the Ark, 87remove the breastplate from the eTBLd, or 88make any incision in the upper garment of the high priest.
70. Lev. 21:17
72. Num. 18:3
73. Lev. 10:9–11
75. Lev. 22:2
76. Lev. 21:6
78. Deut. 23:11
79. Ex. 20:25
81. Lev. 6:6
82. Ex. 30:9
87. Ex. 28:28
Sacrifices
89. Deut. 12:13
91. Lev. 22:20
94. Lev. 22:22
95. Deut. 17:1
97. Lev. 22:21
98. Lev. 2:11
99. Lev. 2:13
100. Deut. 23:19
101. Lev. 22:28
102. Lev. 5:11
104. Num. 5:15
107. Lev. 27:26
108. Num. 18:17
109. Lev. 27:33
111. Lev. 27:28
112. Lev. 5:8
113. Deut. 15:19
115. Ex. 34:25
116. Ex. 23:10
117. Ex. 12:10
118. Deut. 16:4
120. Lev. 22:30
121. Ex. 12:46
124. Lev. 6:10
It is forbidden to 89offer sacrifices or 90slaughter consecrated animals outside the Temple. You may not 91sanctify, 92slaughter, 93sprinkle the blood of, or 94burn the inner parts of a blemished animal even if the blemish is 95of a temporary nature and even if it is 96offered by Gentiles. It is forbidden to 97inflict a blemish on an animal consecrated for sacrifice.
Leaven or honey may not 98be offered on the altar, neither may 99anything unsalted. An animal received as the hire of a harlot or as the price of a dog 100may not be offered.
Do not 101kill an animal and its young on the same day.
It is forbidden to use 102olive oil or 103frankincense in the sin offering or 104,105in the jealousy offering (sotah). You may not 106substitute sacrifices even 107from one category to the other. You may not 108redeem the firstborn of permitted animals.
It is forbidden to 109sell the tithe of the herd or 110sell or 111redeem a field consecrated by the herem vow.
When you slaughter a bird for a sin offering, you may not 112split its head.
It is forbidden to 113work with or 114to shear a consecrated animal. You must not slaughter the paschal lamb 115while there is still leaven about; nor may you leave overnight 116those parts that are to be offered up or 117to be eaten.
You may not leave any part of the festive offering 118until the third day or any part of 119the second paschal lamb or 120the thanksgiving offering until the morning.
It is forbidden to break a bone of 121the first or 122the second paschal lamb or 123to carry their flesh out of the house where it is being eaten.
You must not 124allow the remains of the meal offering to become
90. Lev. 17:3–4
92. Lev. 22:22
93. Lev. 22:24
96. Lev. 22:25
103. Lev. 5:11
105. Num. 5:15
106. Lev. 27:10
110. Lev. 27:28
114. Deut. 15:19
119. Num. 9:13
122. Num. 9:12
123. Ex. 12:46

Commandments, The 613

125. Ex. 12:9
126. Ex. 12:45
130. Lev. 7:19
131. Lev. 19:6–8
133. Lev. 22:10
136. Lev. 22:4
137. Lev. 22:12
139. Lev. 6:23
140. Deut. 14:3
141. Deut. 12:17
143. Deut. 12:17
146. Deut. 12:17
147. Deut. 12:17
150. Deut. 26:14
152. Deut. 26:14
153. Lev. 22:15
155. Deut. 23:22
157. Num. 30:3
leaven. It is also forbidden to eat the paschal lamb 125raw or sodden or to allow 126an alien resident, 127an uncircumcised person, or an 128apostate to eat of it.
A ritually unclean person 129must not eat of holy things nor may 130holy things which have become unclean be eaten. Sacrificial meat 131which is left after the time-limit or 132which was slaughtered with wrong intentions must not be eaten. The heave offering must not be eaten by 133a non-priest, 134a priest's sojourner or hired worker, 135an uncircumcised person, or 136an unclean priest. The daughter of a priest who is married to a non-priest may not 137eat of holy things.
The meal offering of the priest 138must not be eaten, neither may 139the flesh of the sin offerings sacrificed within the sanctuary or 140consecrated animals which have become blemished.
You may not eat the second tithe of 141corn, 142wine, or 143oil or 144unblemished firstlings outside Jerusalem. The priests may not eat the 145sin-offerings or the trespass-offerings outside the Temple courts or 146the flesh of the burnt-offering at all. The lighter sacrifices 147may not be eaten before the blood has been sprinkled. A non-priest may not 148eat of the holiest sacrifices and a priest 149may not eat the first fruits outside the Temple courts.
One may not eat 150the second tithe while in a state of impurity or 151in mourning; its redemption money 152may not be used for anything other than food and drink.
You must not 153eat untithed produce or 154change the order of separating the various tithes.
Do not 155delay payment of offerings – either freewill or obligatory – and do not 156come to the Temple on the pilgrim festivals without an offering.
Do not 157break your word.
127. Ex. 12:48
128. Ex. 12:43
129. Lev. 12:4
132. Lev. 7:18
134. Lev. 22:10
135. Lev. 22:10
138. Lev. 6:16
142. Deut. 12:17
144. Deut. 12:17
145. Deut. 12:17
148. Deut. 12:17
149. Ex. 29:33
151. Deut. 26:14
154. Ex. 22:28
156. Ex. 23:15
Priests
158. Lev. 21:7
160. Lev. 21:7
162. Lev. 21:15
163. Lev. 10:6
166. Lev. 21:1
167. Lev. 21:11
170. Deut. 18:1
171. Deut. 14:1
A priest may not marry 158a harlot, 159a woman who has been profaned from the priesthood, or 160a divorcee; the high priest must not 161marry a widow or 162take one as a concubine. Priests may not enter the sanctuary with 163overgrown hair of the head or 164with torn clothing; they must not 165leave the courtyard during the Temple service. An ordinary priest may not render himself 166ritually impure except for those relatives specified, and the high priest should not become impure 167for anybody in 168any way.
The tribe of Levi shall have no part in 169the division of the land of Israel or 170in the spoils of war.
It is forbidden 171to make oneself bald as a sign of mourning for one's dead.
159. Lev. 21:7
161. Lev. 21:14
164. Lev. 10:6
165. Lev. 10:7
168. Lev. 21:11
169. Deut. 18:1
Dietary Laws
172. Deut. 14:7
174. Lev. 11:13
176. Lev. 11:41
178. Lev. 11:42
181. Ex. 23:19
183. Gen. 32:33
184. Lev. 7:26
A Jew may not eat 172unclean cattle, 173unclean fish, 174unclean fowl, 175creeping things that fly, 176creatures that creep on the ground, 177reptiles, 178worms found in fruit or produce, or 179any detestable creature.
An animal that has died naturally 180is forbidden for consumption, as is 181a torn or mauled animal. One must not eat 182any limb taken from a living animal. Also prohibited is 183the sinew of the thigh (gid ha-nasheh), as are 184blood and 185certain types of fat (helev). It is
173. Lev. 11:11
175. Deut. 14:19
177. Lev. 11:44
179. Lev. 11:43
180. Deut. 14:21
182. Deut. 12.23
185. Lev. 7:23

Commandments, The 613

186. Ex. 23:19
188. Ex. 21:28
189. Lev. 23:14
190. Lev. 23:14
192. Lev. 19:23
194. Deut. 32:38
195. Lev. 19:26;
Deut. 21:20
197. Ex. 13:3
199. Deut. 16:3
200. Ex. 13:7
forbidden 186to cook meat together with milk or 187eat of such a mixture. It is also forbidden to eat 188of an ox condemned to stoning (even if it has been properly slaughtered).
One may not eat 189bread made of new corn or the new corn itself, either 190roasted or 191green, before the omer offering has been brought on the 16thof Nisan. You may not eat 192orlah or 193the growth of mixed planting in the vineyard (see Mixed Species). Any use of 194wine libations to idols is prohibited, as are 195gluttony and drunkenness. One may not eat anything on 196the Day of Atonement. During Passover it is forbidden to eat 197leaven (hamez) or 198anything containing an admixture of such. This is also forbidden 199after the middle of the 14th of Nisan (the day before Passover). During Passover no leaven may be 200seen or 201found in your possession.
187. Ex. 34:26
191. Lev. 23:14
193. Deut. 22:9
196. Lev. 23:29
198. Ex. 13:20
201. Ex. 12:19
Nazirites
202. Num. 6:3
203. Num. 6:3
206. Num. 6:4
208. Lev. 21:11
209. Num. 6:5
A Nazirite may not drink 202wine or any beverage made from grapes; he may not eat 203fresh grapes, 204dried grapes, 205grape seeds, or 206grape peel. He may not render himself 207ritually impure for his dead nor may he 208enter a tent in which there is a corpse. He must not 209shave his hair. 204. Num. 6:3
205. Num. 6:4
207. Num. 6:7
Agriculture
210. Lev. 23:22
211. Lev. 19:9
213. Lev. 19:10
215. Lev. 19:19
217. Lev. 19:19
219. Deut. 25:4
220. Lev. 25:4
222. Lev. 25:5
225. Lev. 25:11
227. Lev. 25:23
228. Lev. 25:33
It is forbidden 210to reap the whole of a field without leaving the corners for the poor; it is also forbidden to 211gather up the ears of corn that fall during reaping or to harvest 212the misformed clusters of grapes, or 213the grapes that fall or to 214return to take a forgotten sheaf.
You must not 215sow different species of seed together or 216corn in a vineyard; it is also forbidden to 217crossbreed different species of animals or 218work with two different species yoked together. You must not 219muzzle an animal working in a field to prevent it from eating. It is forbidden to 220till the earth, 221to prune trees, 222to reap (in the usual manner) produce or 223fruit which has grown without cultivation in the seventh year (shemittah). One may also not 224till the earth or prune trees in the Jubilee year, when it is also forbidden to harvest (in the usual manner) 225produce or 226fruit that has grown without cultivation.
One may not 227sell one's landed inheritance in the land of Israel permanently or 228change the lands of the Levites or 229leave the Levites without support.
212. Lev. 19:10
214. Deut. 24:19
216. Deut. 22:9
218. Deut. 22:10
221. Lev. 25:4
223. Lev. 25:5
224. Lev. 25:11
226. Lev. 25:11
229. Deut. 12:19
Loans, Business, and the Treatment of Slaves
230. Deut. 15:2
231. Deut. 15:9
232. Deut. 15:7
235. Lev. 25:37
237. Ex. 22:24
238. Lev. 19:13
239. Deut. 24:10
241. Deut. 24:17
242. Deut. 24:6
It is forbidden to 230demand repayment of a loan after the seventh year; you may not, however, 231refuse to lend to the poor because that year is approaching. Do not 232deny charity to the poor or 233send a Hebrew slave away empty-handed when he finishes his period of service. Do not 234dun your debtor when you know that he cannot pay. It is forbidden to 235lend to or 236borrow from another Jew at interest or 237participate in an agreement involving interest either as a guarantor, witness, or writer of the contract.
Do not 238delay payment of wages.
You may not 239take a pledge from a debtor by violence, 240keep a poor man's pledge when he needs it, 241take any pledge from a widow or 242from any debtor if he earns his living with it.
233. Deut. 15:13
234. Ex. 22:24
236. Deut. 23:20
240. Deut. 24:12

Commandments, The 613

243. Ex. 20:13
244. Lev. 19:11
246. Deut. 19:14
248. Lev. 19:11
250. Lev. 25:14
252. Ex. 22:20
254. Deut. 23:16
256. Ex. 22:21
258. Lev. 25:42
260. Lev. 25:53
262. Ex. 21:10
263. Deut. 21:14
265. Ex. 20:17
266. Deut. 5:18
267. Deut. 23:26
269. Deut. 22:3
270. Ex. 23:5
271. Lev. 19:35
Kidnapping 243a Jew is forbidden.
Do not 244steal or 245rob by violence. Do not 246remove a landmarker or 247defraud.
It is forbidden 248to deny receipt of a loan or a deposit or 249to swear falsely regarding another man's property.
You must not 250deceive anybody in business. You may not 251mislead a man even verbally. It is forbidden to harm the stranger among you 252verbally or 253do him injury in trade.
You may not 254return or 255otherwise take advantage of a slave who has fled to the land of Israel from his master, even if his master is a Jew. Do not 256afflict the widow or the orphan. You may not 257misuse or 258sell a Hebrew slave; do not 259treat him cruelly or 260allow a heathen to mistreat him. You must not 261sell your Hebrew maidservant or, if you marry her, 262withhold food, clothing, and conjugal rights from her. You must not 263sell a female captive or 264treat her as a slave.
Do not 265covet another man's possesions even if you are willing to pay for them. Even 266the desire alone is forbidden.
A worker must not 267cut down standing corn during his work or 268take more fruit than he can eat.
One must not 269turn away from a lost article which is to be returned to its owner nor may you 270refuse to help a man or an animal which is collapsing under its burden.
It is forbidden to 271defraud with weights and measures or even 272to possess inaccurate weights.
245. Lev. 19:13
247. Lev. 19:13
249. Lev. 19:11
251. Lev. 25:17
253. Ex. 22:20
255. Deut. 23:17
257. Lev. 25:39
259. Lev. 25:43
261. Ex. 21:8
264. Deut. 21:14
268. Deut. 23:25
272. Deut. 25:13
Justice
273. Lev. 19:15
275. Lev. 19:15
278. Ex. 23:6
279. Deut. 19:13
281. Ex. 23:1
282. Ex. 23:2
283. Ex. 23:2
284. Deut. 1:17
285. Ex. 20:16
288. Deut. 19:15
289. Ex. 20:13
291. Num. 35:30
292. Num. 35:12
293. Deut. 25:12
295. Num. 35:31
297. Lev. 19:16
298. Deut. 22:8
300. Deut. 25:2–3
301. Lev. 19:16
A judge must not 273perpetrate injustice, 274accept bribes, or be 275partial or 276afraid. He may 277not favor the poor or 278discriminate against the wicked; he should not 279pity the condemned or 280pervert the judgment of strangers or orphans.
It is forbidden to 281hear one litigant without the other being present.
A capital case cannot be decided by 282a majority of one.
A judge should not 283accept a colleague's opinion unless he is convinced of its correctness; it is forbidden to 284appoint as a judge someone who is ignorant of the law.
Do not 285give false testimony or accept 286testimony from a wicked person or from 287relatives of a person involved in the case. It is forbidden to pronounce judgment 288on the basis of the testimony of one witness.
Do not 289murder.
You must not convict on 290circumstantial evidence alone.
A witness 291must not sit as a judge in capital cases.
You must not 292 execute anybody without due proper trial and conviction.
Do not 293pity or spare the pursuer.
Punishment is not to be inflicted for 294an act committed under duress.
Do not accept ransom 295for a murderer or 296a manslayer.
Do not 297hesitate to save another person from danger and do not 298leave a stumbling block in the way or 299mislead another person by giving wrong advice.
It is forbidden 300to administer more than the assigned number of lashes to the guilty.
Do not 301tell tales or 302bear hatred in your heart. It is forbidden to
274. Ex. 23:8
276. Deut. 1:17
277. Lev. 19:15, rather Ex. 23:3
280. Deut. 24:17
286. Ex. 23:1
287. Deut. 24:16
290. Ex. 23:7
294. Deut. 22:26
296. Num. 35:32
299. Lev. 19:14
302. Lev. 19:17

Commandments, The 613

303. Lev. 19:17
305. Lev. 19:18
307. Lev. 13:33
310. Ex. 22:17
311. Deut. 24:5
312. Deut. 17:11
313. Deut. 13:1
315. Ex. 22:27
318. Ex. 21:17
319. Ex. 21:15
320. Ex. 20:10
323. Ex. 12:16
325. Lev. 23:21
327. Lev. 23:35
328. Lev. 23:36
303shame a Jew, 304to bear a grudge, or 305to take revenge. Do not 306take the dam when you take the young birds.
It is forbidden to 307shave a leprous scalp or 308remove other signs of that affliction. It is forbidden 309to cultivate a valley in which a slain body was found and in which subsequently the ritual of breaking the heifer's neck (eglah arufah) was performed.
Do not 310suffer a witch to live.
Do not 311force a bridegroom to perform military service during the first year of his marriage. It is forbidden to 312rebel against the transmitters of the tradition or to 313add or 314detract from the precepts of the law.
Do not curse 315a judge, 316a ruler, or 317any Jew.
Do not 318curse or 319strike a parent.
It is forbidden to 320work on the Sabbath or 321walk further than the permitted limits (eruv). You may not 322inflict punishment on the Sabbath.
It is forbidden to work on 323the first or 324the seventh day of Passover, on325Shavuot, on 326Rosh Ha-Shanah, on the 327first and 328eighth (*Shemini Azeret) days of Sukkot, and 329on the Day of Atonement.
304. Lev. 19:18
306. Deut. 22:6
308. Deut. 24:8
309. Deut. 21:4
314. Deut. 13:1
316. Ex. 22:27
317. Lev. 19:14
321. Ex. 16:29
322. Ex. 35:3
324. Ex. 12:16
326. Lev. 23:25
329. Lev. 23:28
Incest and Other Forbidden Relationships
330. Lev. 18:7
331. Lev. 18:8
332. Lev. 18:9
336. Lev. 18:10
338. Lev. 18:17
341. Lev. 18:13
343. Lev. 18:15
344. Lev. 18:16
347. Lev. 18:20
350. Lev. 18:22
351. Lev. 18:7
353. Lev. 18:6
354. Deut. 23:3
355. Deut. 23:18
358. Deut. 22:29
360. Deut. 23:2
361. Lev. 22:24
It is forbidden to enter into an incestuous relationship with one's 330mother, 331step-mother, 332sister, 333half-sister, 334son's daughter, 335daughter's daughter, 336daughter, 337any woman and her daughter, 338any woman and her son's daughter, 339any woman and her daughter's daughter, 340father's sister, 341mother's sister, 342paternal uncle's wife, 343daughter-in-law, 344brother's wife, and 345wife's sister.
It is also forbidden to 346have sexual relations with a menstruous woman (see Niddah).
Do not 347commit adultery.
It is forbidden for 348a man or 349a woman to have sexual intercourse with an animal.
Homosexuality 350is forbidden, particularly with 351one's father or 352uncle.
It is forbidden to have 353intimate physical contact (even without actual intercourse) with any of the women with whom intercourse is forbidden.
A mamzer may not 354marry a Jewess.
Harlotry 355is forbidden.
A divorcee may not be 356remarried to her first husband if, in the meanwhile, she had married another.
A childless widow may not 357marry anybody other than her late husband's brother (see Levirate Marriage).
A man may not 358divorce a wife whom he married after having raped her or 359after having slandered her.
A eunuch may not 360marry a Jewess.
Castration 361is forbidden.
333. Lev. 18:11
334. Lev. 18:10
335. Lev. 18:10
337. Lev. 18:17
339. Lev. 18:17
340. Lev. 18:12
342. Lev. 18:14
345. Lev. 18:18
346. Lev. 18:19
348. Lev. 18:23
349. Lev. 18:23
352. Lev. 18:14
356. Deut. 24:4
357. Deut. 25:5
359. Deut. 22:19
The Monarchy
362. Deut. 17:15
363. Deut. 17:16
364. Deut. 17:17
You may not 362elect as king anybody who is not of the seed of Israel.
The king must not accumulate an excessive number of 363horses, 364wives, or 365wealth.
365. Deut. 17:17
[Raphael Posner]

Deut. 17; Ex. R. 33:7; Num. R. 13:15–16; 18:21; Yev. 47b) which crystallized in the school of R. *Akiva (see A.H. Rabinowitz, Taryag, 38–39). Doubt as to the validity of this tradition in the eyes of the sages of the Talmud has been expressed by *Naḥmanides, Abraham *Ibn Ezra, Simeon b. Zemaḥ *Duran, Schechter, and others, but the majority of scholars, including Naḥmanides and Duran, conclude that the tradition does in fact reflect the opinion of the rabbis of the Talmud. Works enumerating the commandments are numerous (see Jellinek, Kunteres Taryag, 1878), but the majority of the lists conform to one of four methods of enumeration: (1) The earliest lists, those of the anonymous *azharot, are divided simply into two lists of positive and prohibitive precepts, with little attention being paid to the internal classification, e.g., Attah Hinḥalta, Azharat Reshit, Emet Yehegeh Ḥikki. (2) The threefold division into positive commandments, prohibitions, and parashiyyot, first found in the list prefacing the *Halakhot Gedolot of R. Simeon Kayyara and subsequently in almost every enumeration of geonic times. (The basis for this division is to be found in Mid. Ps. 119:1 and indirectly in PR 22:111.) The section called parashiyyot lists precepts involving the public body but not the individual, e.g., setting aside cities for the levites, erecting the sanctuary. (3) Classification of the precepts under the tenfold headings of the *Decalogue. This method of classifying the precepts is at least as old as *Philo (Decal.), is mentioned in the Midrash several times (e.g., Num. R. 13:15/16), and is followed by *Saadiah Gaon, Isaac *Abrabanel, Ma'amar Haskel, and many others. (4) Independent logical classification of the two lists of positive and prohibitive precepts. This is the method of Maimonides and his school. There are in addition many literary curiosities in this field. Elijah Ettinger attempted to show that the 613 precepts are contained in the four verses of Moses' prayer (Deut. 3:23–6). Shirah le-Ḥayyim (Warsaw, 1817) attempts to insert the 613 precepts into the 613 letters of the song of Ha'azinu (Deut. 32:1–43). David Vital's Keter Torah construes a 613-line poem, each line defining one mitzvah and commencing with the letters of the Decalogue as they appear in the text. A Taryag enumeration amounts in principle to a codification of the major elements of biblical law – the 613 headings under which all the details of Torah legislation may be classified. Extracting and identifying these headings from the complex body of biblical law is the central problem of the vast literature which has grown up around Taryag enumerations. In this literature the term mitzvah is used in the limited sense of a mandate or prohibition which fulfills the conditions necessary for inclusion among the member mitzvot of Taryag. Since early tradition gives no precise criteria, the problem is immense and no logical system hitherto proposed is free from criticism. Although preceded by the logical systems of Saadiah Gaon and Ḥefeẓ b. Yaẓli'aḥ, and subsequently criticized by Naḥmanides, the principal method of enumerating the mitzvot is that defined by *Maimonides in his Sefer ha-Mitzvot. Maimonides introduces the work with a lengthy treatise in which he lays down 14 guiding principles governing the inclusion or exclusion of a mitzvah in a Taryag enumeration. This treatise formed the basis for subsequent literature on the subject, and the divergence of different Taryag lists, both preceding and succeeding Maimonides, is due to differences of opinion over these principles. Taryag lists are by no means confined to halakhic treatment. They range over the fields of ethics (Aaron of Barcelona, and Isaiah Hurwitz, among others) homiletics (Aḥai Gaon), philosophy (Moreh Nevukhim), and mysticism (David b. Solomon ibn Abi Zimra). An entire (though incomplete) section of the Zohar, the "Ra'aya Meheimna" ("Faithful Shepherd"), is devoted to enumerating Taryag and offers a mystical interpretation of the precepts. Taryag lists also entered the liturgy, during geonic times, in the form of azharot, which form an integral part of the festival prayer book.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Bloch, in: REJ, 1 (1880), 197–211; 5 (1882), 27–40; J.M. (Michael) Guttmann, Beḥinat ha-Mitzvot (1928); Halper, in: JQR, 4 (1913/14), 519–76; 5 (1914/15), 29–90; H. Heller (ed.), Sefer ha-Mitzvot le-R. Moshe b. Maimon (1914); Maimonides, The Book of Divine Commandments, tr. by C.B. Chavel (1940).

[Abraham Hirsch Rabinowitz]


Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.