CASSIUS LONGINUS° (d. 42 B.C.E.), Roman general. After the death of *Crassus, during the disastrous Parthian campaign of 53 B.C.E., Cassius successfully repelled Parthian incursions into Syria and then turned his attention to Judea. He captured Tarichaeae and executed Peitholaus who had rallied around him the anti-Roman partisans of *Aristobulus. In 51, Cassius returned to Rome, and in the year 44 played a decisive role in the conspiracy against Julius Caesar. Later Cassius returned to Syria. He imposed a tribute of 700 talents of silver on Judea, the collection of which was undertaken by *Antipater. Antipater's son *Herod was the first to bring his quota of one hundred talents from Galilee; this won him the favor of Cassius. Gophna, Emmaus, Lydda, and Thamna delayed paying their tribute with the result that their citizens were enslaved by Cassius. Meanwhile Cassius appointed Herod governor of Coele-Syria and according to Josephus even promised to make him king of Judea. Cassius left Syria in 42 B.C.E. and in October of that year was defeated in battle by Antony at Philippi.
Jos., Ant., 14:119–22, 270ff.; Jos., Wars, 1:180–2, 218ff.; Pauly-Wissowa, 6 (1899), 1727–36, no. 59, and supplement, 1 (1903), 277; Schuerer, Hist, 105, 111ff.; A. Schalit, Hordos ha-Melekh (19643), 28, 33ff., 38; Klausner, Bayit Sheni, 3 (19502), 839.
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.