BIKKUREI HA-ITTIM (Heb. בִּכּוּרֵי הָעִתִּים; "First Fruits of the Times"), Hebrew literary-scientific annuals, published in Vienna for 12 successive years (1821–32), and a central forum for *Haskalah literature. The editor of the first three volumes, Shalom b. Jacob *Cohen, sought to continue in this publication the tradition of Ha-Me'assef, the journal which initiated Hebrew periodical publications in the Haskalah period. (He had previously published and edited the last three volumes of Ha-Me'assef he-Ḥadash.) The first volumes also contained a German section (transcribed in Hebrew letters), which was later discontinued. The editors following Cohen were: Moses *Landau (vols. 4–5), Solomon Pergamenter (vol. 6), Issachar Baer Schlesinger (vols. 7–8), Isaac Samuel *Reggio (vols. 9–10), and Judah Loeb *Jeiteles (vols. 11–12). All the various literary genres were represented in these volumes – e.g., fiction, research, as well as translations of world literature (but mainly from German) – and were contributed by writers from Italy, Bohemia, Austria, Galicia, and Hungary. Reprints of a selection of works from Ha-Me'assef were also included. The standard improved in the last volumes, especially with S.J. *Rapoport's publication of his biographical monographs on geonic medieval Jewish scholars and authors. Other contributors included S.D. *Luzzatto and Isaac *Erter. With the discontinuation
B. Wachstein, Die hebraeische Publizistik in Wien (1930), xiii–xl (introduction); R. Fahn, Kitvei Re'uven Fahn, 2 (1937), 100–41 (Pirkei Haskalah).
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