AYYELET HA-SHAḤAR (Heb. אַיֶּלֶת הַשַׁחַר; "Morning Star," deriving from the Arabic name for the site, Nijmat-al-Ṣubḥ), kibbutz in northern Israel, near ancient
. Ayyelet ha-Shaḥar, affiliated with Iḥud ha-Kevuẓot ve-ha-Kibbutzim, was founded in 1918 by Second Aliyah pioneers who were joined by members of
to secure exposed land holdings of
and increase food production for the Jewish urban population which during World War I suffered severe hunger. The existence of Ayyelet ha-Shaḥar, together with
, resulted in the inclusion of the Ḥuleh Valley in the borders of Palestine after World War I. The kibbutz economy was based on intensive mixed farming – industrial field crops, fodder, dairy cattle, carp ponds, and particularly fruit (mainly apple) orchards. It operated a museum of the findings from nearby Hazor and a popular guest house. Its population in 1967 was 710, increasing to 925 in the mid-1990s and 1,270 in 2002.