- Arabic: Dry riverbed that is filled with water for a short time during
the rainy season in the winter.
- Militarized units of the SS.
- Legislation introduced in the U.S. Congress in 1939 by Rep. Robert
Wagner to admit a total of 20,000 Jewish children over a two-year
period above the refugee quota applicable at the time.
- (1912- c. 1945) Swedish diplomat who, in 1944, went to Hungary on a mission to
save as many Jews as possible by handing out Swedish papers, passports
and visas. He is credited with saving the lives of at least 30,000
people. After the liberation of Budapest, he was mysteriously taken
into custody by the Russians and his fate remains unknown.
- Meeting held at a villa in Wannsee, Germany,
on January 20, 1942, to coordinate the implementation
of the Final Solution.
Chaired by Reinhard Heydrich and attended by
Adolf Eichmann and many other civilian and military
leaders, the meeting established the administrative
apparatus for accomplishing Hitler's dream of
a Europe free of Jews.
- (Arabic) 1. a Muslim Charitable pious foundation. 2. State lands
and other property passed to the Muslim community for public welfare.
War of Independence
- War of 1947-49 when the Jews of Israel fought off invading Arab
armies and established an independent state.
War Refugee Board
- A U.S. government agency for rescue of and
aid to WW II victims, established on Jan. 22,
1944, by President Franklin Roosevelt after receiving
a report by the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury,
Henry Morgenthau, providing details about the Final Solution.
The Board, which was headed by Morgenthau, was
to take whatever steps were necessary to rescue
the civilian victims of the Holocaust.
- City in central Poland, capital of Poland since 1596, with a Jewish
population of 375,000 in 1939, representing 29 percent of the total
city population. All Jewish institutions were destroyed by the Nazis
and Allied bombing. Site of the infamous Warsaw Ghetto.
- Established in November 1940, the ghetto, surrounded
by a wall, confined nearly 500,000 Jews. Almost
45,000 Jews died there in 1941 alone, due to
overcrowding, forced labor, lack of sanitation,
starvation, and disease. From April 19 to May
16, 1943, a revolt took place in the ghetto when
the Germans, commanded by General Jürgen Stroop,
attempted to raze the ghetto and deport the remaining
inhabitants to Treblinka . The uprising, led
by Mordecai Anielewicz, was the first instance
in occupied Europe of an uprising by an urban
population. (See Anielewicz, Mordecai).
- Document signed July 25, 1994, by Israeli Prime
Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Jordanian King Hussein,
and U.S. President Bill Clinton on the occasion
of the first public meeting between Israeli and
Jordanian leaders. Paving the way to the formal
peace treaty between the two countries signed
on October 26, 1994, the document formally ended
the 46-year-old state of war between Israel and
Jordan and emphasized that both countries would
negotiate vigorously to reach
an agreement on a full peace treaty. The document
also outlined economic and other forms of cooperation
between the two countries.
- German armed forces.
- Germany's political structure following World War I. The Constitution
called for an elected President, a Chancellor (Prime Minister) appointed
by the President, a Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the Chancellor,
and an elected house of representatives, i.e. Parliament, called
the Reichstag. The governing powers rested with the Chancellor through
the ministry, with the President retaining veto powers and performing
ceremonial duties. The Reichstag provided more of an advisory role
than an actual legislative one.
- (1903-?) SS-Hauptscharfuhrer assigned to the
Vilna ghetto, the so-called "Boss of Ponary." For
a time he was the SS liaison in charge of a Lithuanian
executioner unit. This unit, consisting of 45
to 150 volunteers, was responsible for killing
at least 48,000 Jews at Ponary.
- Territory west of the Jordan River that Israel captured from Jordan
in its defensive 1967 war. Often referred to by its Biblical name,
Judea and Samaria, this land is home to a Palestinian population
of over one million, as well as about 140,000 Jewish residents.
Under the terms of the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles, Palestinian
autonomy has been extended from the Gaza Strip and Jericho to other
areas of the West Bank.
- The only remaining
structure from the second temple left standing
after the Roman destruction. Since the Jews
are considered to be in a state of ritual impurity until
certain special sacrifices can be brought (notably
the ashes of the red heifer), some authorities
hold religious Jews are forbidden to set foot
on the actual site of the temple and this is
the closest they can come to praying at the
temple site. Others hold, however, that Jews
may ascend the Temple Mount compound and are
only forbidden to enter certain areas inside
White Paper 1939
- A British government statement of Palestine policy, which restricted
Jewish immigration to Palestine and prohibited the purchase of land
by Jews there.
- (1928- ) Survivor, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986,
sent to Auschwitz liberated from Buchenwald.
Starting with his first novel Night,
his writings have inspired the world to understand
the plight of the victims of the Holocaust.
- (1908-2005) Famed Holocaust survivor who has dedicated his life since the
war to gathering evidence for the prosecution of Nazi war criminals.
- The Economic and Administrative Office of the
SS. Created in 1942 it controlled the vast economic
interests of the SS. These
were tied up with concentration camp and extermination programs
through the administration of slave labor and the saleable outputs
from the Jewish ghettoes and concentration and extermination camps.
The SS official in charge was Obergruppenführer
- Women's International Zionist Organization founded in 1920, involved
in rescuing Jewish children and young people and giving them care
and education in Eretz Israel.
- In the winter of 1940-41 Hitler established his new headquarters
near Rastenburg. During the following years, the compound included
extensive bunker systems and was well hidden from possible aerial
attack. It was at the Wolf's Lair that Stauffenberg planted a bomb,
in the hopes of staging a coup.
- In 1938, a commission led by Sir John Woodhead
was appointed to explore the partition recommendation
of the Peel Commission. The commission proposed
a reduction of the Jewish share of Palestinian
territory to about 400 square miles around Tel
Aviv the only
area where the Jews constituted a majority. The
Woodhead plan was rejected by the Zionists as
inadequate; it also was rejected by the Arabs,
who opposed granting sovereignty to Jews over
any part of Palestine.
World Jewish Congress
- A voluntary association of representative Jewish bodies, communities
and organizations throughout the world, established in 1936.
- World Zionist Organization
- The official organization of the Zionist movement, the WZO was founded by Theodore Herzl and its first Congress was in August 1897 in Basel, Switzerland. It conducted the political, economic, and settlement activities that lead to the establishment of the state of Israel.
- Written Law
- The Torah and the principles and laws embodied in it.
Wye River Memorandum
- Agreement signed on October 23, 1998 for the implementation of
Oslo II agreement and to resume final status talks. The memorandum
included giving the PA control over 13% of the West Bank, changing
the PLO Charter, opening of the Gaza airport, reduction of the number
of Palestinian Police and the release of Palestinian prisoners. The full extent of agreements were not carried out.