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Glossary:
"U"


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Ugaritic
An ancient Canaanite language of northern Syria, closely related to Hebrew; an archive of Ugaritic writings discovered at Ras Shamra is important in biblical studies.
Ulpan
Class or school for intensive study of Hebrew language.
Umschlagplatz
(Ger.). Collection point. It was a square in the Warsaw Ghetto where Jews were rounded up for deportation to Treblinka.
UN General Assembly Resolution 194
Resolution adopted on December 11, 1948, to address the issue of Arab refugees. Often cited as granting the Palestinians a "right to return" to their homes, the resolution actually says those wishing to return must be willing to live at peace with their neighbors. Compensation and resettlement are also presented as options. The Arab states voted unanimously against the resolution.
Unified National Leadership of the Uprising (UNLU)
Umbrella organization of the main political factions in the areas Palestinians live. Organized the first Intifada.
Unit 101
A special unit led by Colonel Ariel Sharon and formed in 1953 that carried out retaliatory attacks against Fedayeen forces.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242
Resolution adopted in 1967 that established the principle of land for peace. The resolution calls for the “[w]ithdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict,” as well as calling for the Arab states to recognize that “every State in the area” has the “right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.” UNSC Resolution 242 also stresses the importance of freedom of navigation through Middle East waterways and “a just settlement of the refugee problem.”
United Nations Security Council Resolution 338
Resolution adopted in 1973 calling for a cease-fire in the Yom Kippur War, the implementation of UNSC Resolution 242 and negotiations between the parties involved in the Arab-Israeli conflict.
United Nations War Crimes Commission
The Commission was established following discussions between representatives of the Allied powers in London, on October 20, 1943, and first met in January 1944. 
Underground
A secret network which is organized to resist authority.
UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency)
Founded in 1949 as a Palestinian emergency assistance organization. Its mandate is to provide education, health and relief services. Its headquarters are in Gaza.
UNSCO
The UN Special Coordinator in the West Bank and Gaza established in June 1994. This person facilitates UN programs in the region and donated monies.
UNSCOP (United Nations Special Committee on Palestine)
Appointed in April 1947 to investigate the situation in Palestine and propose solutions. The majority of the committee recommended to partition Palestine, giving the Negev and a small part of the western part of the country to the Jews and giving what is now the West Bank and most of the northern part of the country to the Arabs. The Arab Higher Committee rejected the partition plan, the Jewish Agency accepted it.
Untermenschen
(Ger. Subhumans) Nazi categorization for the lesser races of Eastern Europe.
UNTSO (United Nations Truce Supervision Organization)
Established in June 1948 to assist the UN Mediator and the Truce Commission in supervising a truce between the Jews and the Arabs in Palestine. The group is still in operation today in Beirut, the Sinai and the Golan with headquarters are in Jerusalem.
U.S. Zone
After the surrender of Germany, Great Britain, the United States, France and the Soviet Union divided Germany and Austria into 4 zones of occupation. The cities of Berlin and Vienna were similarly divided. The Western zones became the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). In 1990 West and East Germany were reunited.
Uvda Operation
On March 5, 1948, Israel captured additional territory in the Negev, extending its borders to the Gulf of Aqaba and securing a sea route from the south.

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