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- (Heb. Horizon) Israeli satellite launched in March 1995.
- Tent; Yishuv theater company founded in 1925.
OKH - Oberkommando des Heeres (Army High Command)
- Both numerically and operationally, the Army was the most important
of the armed services. Field-Marshall Walter von Brauchitsch
was its Commander-in-Chief between 1938 and December 1941.
This position was then assumed by Hitler. As Hitler was also
Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Wehrmacht, this meant that there
was considerable overlap in practice between the OKH and the OKW.
OKM - Oberkommando der Kreigsmarine
- Navy High Command
OKL - Oberkommando der Luftwaffe
- Supreme Command of the Air force
OKW - Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (Armed
Forces High Command)
- The OKW was established in February 1938 and controlled all matters
of inter-service policy. It was directly responsible for the
overall conduct of operations during the war. Its most senior officer
was Wilhelm Keitel, Field Marshal and Chief of Staff for the whole
of the period from 1938 to 1945. The most important section
of the OKW, which was directly concerned with field operations,
was the Armed Forces Operations Staff (Wehrmachtsfuehrungsstab,
WFST). During the war this was commanded by General Alfred
Jodl. The decree promulgated by Hitler that established the
OKW also specified that "Command authority over the entire
Armed Forces is from now on exercised directly by me personally." One of the principal agencies of the OKW was the General Armed
Forces Office (Allgemeines Wehrmachtamt, AWA), which was concerned
primarily with administrative matters. An important subdivision
of the AWA was the Office of the Chief of Prisoner-of-War Affairs
(Chef des Kriegsgefangenwesens, Chef Kriegs-Gef).
A German prisoner of war camp for officers.
- The world to come. It is the place where the righteous will be after life on earth.
- Olam Ha-ze
- This world; the world in which we now live.
Olbricht, General Friedrich
- Chief of the OKW General Army Office in Berlin from 1941- 44.
Developed plans for Operation Valkyrie with Beck, Stauffenberg and
others. General Olbricht gave the signal to launch Operation Valkyrie
after Stauffenberg's bombing of the Wolf's lair.
- The name traditionally given by Christians to the Jewish biblical
writings that together with the New Testament constitute
the Christian Bible. For most Protestant Christians, the Old Testament
is identical to the classical Jewish Bible, while for classical (Roman
Catholic, Greek Orthodox, etc.) Christianity, the Old Testament also
includes the Apocrypha.
- Immigrant to Israel. See also, Aliyah.
- (Heb. Those who went to the Gallows) The term refers to the 12
Jews sentenced to death by the British Mandatory Government for their
underground activities against the British Government. Two of the
twelve individuals escaped the hangman by taking their own life while
awaiting their fate on death row. The members of the group were affiliated
with either the Irgun or the Lehi, with Shlomo ben Yosef, who was
hung prior to the establishment of the underground organizations,
being the only exception.
- Omega Operation
- After failure of the Alpha Plan and concern over Nasser and the Soviet Union’s growing contact and connection, the Omega Plan was an Anglo-American attempt to harm Egyptian interests in 1956.
- (Heb. sheaf) In Judaism, the sheaf of grain offering
brought to the temple during Passover, on Nisan 16; thus also the
name of the seven-week period between Passover/Pesach and Shavuot
also known as the Sephirah. See also calendar.
- 2nd-century translator of the Hebrew Bible into its official Aramaic version.
- Deprecatory phrase for the United Nations.
Open Bridges Policy
- Policy adopted by Moshe Dayan after the Six Day War to provide access
and contacts for the Arabs who just came under Israeli rule to reach
- Operation Accountability
- In July 1993, Hezbollah and Palestinian groups in Southern Lebanon were firing Katyusha rockets into Israel’s security zone and into northern Israel. On July 25, Israel launched Accountability Operation aimed at pressuring the Lebanese government to take action against the militants in Lebanon. This drove numerous civilians to leave southern Lebanon for Beirut. The campaign ended when the US managed to get Syria and Hezbollah to stop attacking northern Israel. However, attacks against Israel’s security zone resumed soon after.
- Operation Agatha
- British military operation carried out in the Palestine Mandate on Saturday, June 29, 1946. Thousands of British troops were sent around the country to try and contain Jewish paramilitary development. During the operation, several underground weapons storehouses were uncovered and the Jews of the Palestine Mandate were placed under strict curfew. Additionally, close to 3,000 Jews were arrested, among them were future Israeli Prime Ministers David Ben-Gurion and Moshe Sharett
- The code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union which
began on June 22, 1941.
- Operation Ben Ami
- Israeli operation during the 1948 War of Independence aimed at capturing the town of Acre.
- Massive Israeli mobilization of troops and calling of reserve troops in response to misinformation from the double agent Son-in-Law in Egypt who falsely informed Israel that Egypt would attack on May 15, 1973. Indeed, Egypt was mobilizing troops. But, they lacked the long-range scud missiles that the Son-in-Law had previously said were required for any Egyptian attack. The operation, implemented on April 19, was aimed at crystallization military operations and speeding military purchases. When the Egyptian attack failed to materialize, the troops were dispersed on August 3, just seven weeks before the attack on Yom Kippur. The foiled operation cost the government $45 million and thus drew much criticism about the use of tax payers’ money. The plan was pushed by Chief of Staff David Elazar and defense Minister Moshe Dayan however was opposed by Chief of the Military Intelligence Eliahu Zaira.
- During the fourth stage of the War of Independence, "Operation Brosh" was only partially successful in reducing the Syrian bridgehead near Mishmar Ha-yarden. After a month long truce arranged by the United Nations, Israel launched a counteroffensive on July 9, 1948 against Syrian forces threatening from the eastern Galilee. The fighting continued until July 18 when a second truce came into effect. However, Israel was unable to dislodge the Syrian positions at the entrance to the Jordan River.
- An unsuccessful cover operation launched by the CIA to arrange a meeting between Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser.
Operation Defensive Shield
Israeli military operation launched in 2002 in response to an increase in terror attacks, specifically the bombing of a Netanya hotel on Passover Eve which killed 29 civilians. The operation involved the infiltration of Palestinian towns in the West Bank in an effort to quash local terrorist groups. It also restricted Palestinian movement, particularly in regards to PA Chairman Yasser Arafat who was kept in his Ramallah compound by Israeli troops. The siege of Arafat's home was ended when he agreed to arrest those responsible for the assassination of Israeli cabinet minister Rahavam Ze'evi in 2001.
- Israeli military operation to capture the lower Galilee in July 1948, after the second cease-fire of the Israeli War of Independence.
Operation Determined Path
- Israeli military operation carried out in 2002 after a rise in suicide bombings and shortly after Israel ended Operation Defensive Shield, it sent Israeli troops back into Palestinian towns.
Operation Entebbe (Also known as: "Operation Thunderbolt", "Operation Thunderball", and "Operation Yoni")
- Israeli rescue operation carried out on July 4, 1976 to free the 257 people taken hostage aboard an Air France plane that was redirected to Entebbe, Uganda. Lacking world efforts to free the hostages, Israel sent a team assembled from its most elite units who flew covertly across Africa and carried out what is considered one of the most daring rescue operations ever carried out. The mission resulted in few civilian casualties and only one Israeli soldier, Yoni Netanyahu commander of the mission and brother of former Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu, was killed.
- Operation Fact
- In May 1949, towards the end of Israel’s War of Independence, Israeli forces reached the port city of Eilat, thus acquiring access to the Red Sea.
- An early attempt by General Tresckow and other resisters in Army
Group Center to Kill Hitler. One of Treskow's collaborators convinced
another staff officer to ferry a package supposedly containing brandy
to a comrade, the package was actually a bomb. The officer carrying
the package was flying with Hitler. The bomb failed to detonate
and Hitler subsequently survived . Fortunately, for the plotters,
the package was retrieved before the bomb was ever discovered.
Operation Grapes of Wrath
- An Israeli attack on Lebanon in 1996 in response to an increase in suicide bombings and Hezbollah rocket attacks from southern Lebanon.
- Israeli military operation during the 1948 War of Independence in which Israeli forces penetrated Lebanon and occupied territories extending as far north as the Litani River. Israel later withdrew from these territories in accordance with the 1949 Armistice Agreement which brought an end to the 1948 War.
- Israeli military operation carried out during the 1948 War of Independence in the southern region of Israel against Egypt. During the operation Israel shot down five British reconnaissance planes spying on behalf of Egypt, drawing much criticism from British officials and making Egypt more willing to negotiate directly with Israel. Operation Horev also marked the first time Israeli forces crossed the international border into Egypt.
- Operation Kinneret
- Operation commanded by Colonel Ariel Sharon on December 11, 1955 in which Israel launched a short and powerful raid against Syrian positions on the eastern bank of the Kinneret. Israel destroyed all Syrian fortifications and captured the entire shore
- Military operation by Israel in March 1978 in retaliation against
a PLO attack on a bus near Haifa. Israel attempted to push PLO positions
away from the Lebanese-Israeli border.
- Israeli military operation carried out on May 1, 1948 to secure safe passage along the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem road.
- The code name for the airlift of 7,800 black Jews from Ethiopia
to Israel, rescuing them from famine and oppression. The operation
began on November 18, 1984, ended six weeks later on January 5,
- Initiated on April 6, 1948, and lasting until April 15, this operation
succeeded in opening the road to Jerusalem long enough to push through
three large convoys stuffed with food and weapons. One of the largest
operations of the War of Independence, 1,500 soldiers fielded by
the Haganah attacked five different locations. The name Operation
Nachshon was derived from the biblical personage Nachshon
Ben Aminadav who was the first to jump into the Red Sea when the
Jews fled Egypt.
Operation Peace for the Galilee
- Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 aimed at ending PLO threats
to citizens in northern Israel and forcing the PLO out of the country.
- Operation Rainbow
- Following the killing of 13 Israeli soldiers in the Gaza Strip, on May 18, 2004 Israel launched a military operation to remove the underground tunnels the Palestinians used to smuggle weapons from Egypt
Operation Reinhard (or Aktion Reinhard)
- The code name for the plan to destroy the millions of Jews in
the General Government, within the framework of the Final Solution.
It began in October 1941, with the deportation of Jews from ghettos
to extermination camps. The three extermination camps established
under Operation Reinhard were Belzec, Sobibór, and Treblinka.
- Operation Scissors
- The code name of the operation to capture Haifa during the War of Independence. It occurred immediately after British withdrawal from the city.
Operation Sheba (Joshua)
- When news of Operation Moses leaked,
it was abruptly halted by the Sudanese. Almost immediately plans
were made to resume the rescue, but the Sudanese president would
agree only to a quick, one-shot operation carried out secretly by
the United States. The CIA then planned the operation code named
Sheba (also called Joshua), which began on March 28,
1985, with Ethiopian Jews from Israel working for the Mossad identifying
the Ethiopian Jews in the camps and taking them by truck to an airstrip.
Planes designed to hold ninety passengers each were prepared at
the American base near Frankfurt, West Germany. These camouflaged
U.S. Hercules transports landed at twenty-minute intervals to pick
up their passengers. Instead of going to an intermediate destination,
the planes flew directly to an Israeli air force base outside Eilat.
The organizers had prepared to airlift as many as two thousand Ethiopian
Jews from the camps, but they found only 494, so three planes returned
from Sudan empty.
- On May 24, 1991, a total of 34 El Al jumbo jets and Hercules C-130s
seats removed to accommodate the maximum number of Ethiopians
began non-stop flights that continued for 36 hours to bring
Ethiopian Jews to Israel from Addis Ababa before the capital fell
to rebel forces. A total of 14,324 Ethiopian Jews were rescued and
resettled in Israel. The Likud government of Yitzhak Shamir authorized
a special permit for the Israeli airline, El Al, to fly on the Jewish
- Operation Uvda
- On March 5, 1948, Israel captured additional territory in the Negev, extending its borders to the Gulf of Aqaba and securing a sea route from the south.
- Operation Volcano
- On November 2, 1955, Israel attacked As-Sabha on the Egyptian side of the Al-Auja Demilitarized Zone.
- Operation Yiftach
- On April 30, 1948, Jewish forces launched an operation to capture Tsfat. On May 11, they captured the city, resulting in a mass Arab exodus.
- Ignoring the provisions of the second truce, the Egyptians denied
Jewish convoys passage through the Hatta-Karatiya gap in their line.
In addition, they captured positions beyond the truce demarcation
lines and attacked several IDF posts that covered the pass. Following
an Egyptian raid on inter-kibbutz communications routes and the
firing on an Israeli convoy on October 15, the Israel Army and Air
force took the offensive and launched Operation Yoav.
In seven days they succeeded in opening the road to the Negev and
capturing its capital, Beersheba.
- Torah commentary by Hayyim ben Moshe Attar (1742); Morocco, Germany, land of Israel.
- In traditional Jewish pharisaic/rabbinic thought, God reveals
instructions for living through both the written scriptures and
through a parallel process of orally transmitted traditions. Critics
of this approach within Judaism include Sadducees and Karaites.The teachings of the Oral Law, which explain the gaps in the Written Law, were eventually written down to comprise the Mishnah by Rabbi yehudah HaNassi and the Gemara by Ravina and Rav Ashi.
- (Ger. Order service) The ghetto police who were
made up of Jewish ghetto residents.
- The Order Police, abbreviated to Orpo. These were the uniformed
police who consisted of the Schutzpolizei (National Police), the
Gendarmerie (Rural Police) and the Gemeindepolizei (Local Police)
Organization for the Islamic Conference (OIC)
- Founded in 1969 to protect Muslim holy sites. Also gets involved
in political issues and historically has supported the Palestinian
people. The group currently has 55 countries as members.
- Eastern Jerusalem building, owned by the prominent Husseini family,
that has served as an informal center for Palestinian activities
over the years. Members of the Palestinian Authority, which seeks
to establish its capital in Jerusalem, have received foreign dignitaries
at Orient House in an apparent attempt to create a symbol of Palestinian
sovereignty over Jerusalem. Since the May 4, 1994, signing of the
Cairo Agreement, which stipulated that the Palestinian Authority
locate its offices in the Gaza Strip and Jericho, Israel has expressed
strong opposition to the Palestinian Authority's operating out of
Orient House or receiving dignitaries there. The U.S. Senate, too,
has voiced its opposition to American officials' meeting with Palestinian
officials for the purpose of conducting official U.S. business
in any part of Jerusalem, including Orient House.
- (Organization for Rehabilitation through Training), an international
organization for developing skilled trades and agriculture among
Jews. ORT established a vocational training network for Jewish Displaced
- From the Greek for correct opinion/outlook, as opposed
to heterodox or heretical. The judgment that a position is orthodox
depends on what are accepted as the operative rules
or authorities at the time. Over the course of history, the term
orthodox has come to denote the dominant surviving forms
that have proved themselves to be traditional or classical
or mainstream (e.g., rabbinic Judaism, the Roman Catholic
and Greek Orthodox Christian churches, sunni Islam), although new,
relative orthodoxies constantly emerge (and often disappear).
- (Greek, correct action/activity) In contrast to orthodoxy
(right belief), the emphasis in this term concerns conduct, both
ethical and liturgical. Historically, Judaism and Islam have tended
to emphasize orthopraxy relatively more than orthodoxy, while classical
Christianity tended to shift the balance in the other direction.
- Osiraq Bombing
- Israel’s air raid on a nearly completed nuclear reactor near Baghdad, Iraq on June 7, 1981. The attack heralded the Begin Doctrine which expressed Israeli determination to prevent adversaries in the region from acquiring a nuclear weapon.
- Capital of Norway, site of secret talks in 1993 between Israel
and the PLO that led to mutual recognition and the signing of the
Declaration of Principles. Refers generally to the multi-stage agreement
between Israel and the Palestinians.
- Oslo Process
- The nomenclature referring to the peace talks that began in Oslo in 1993.
- A series of anti-Semitic pamphlets published by Lanz von Liebenfels
between 1907 and 1910. Hitler bought these regularly and in 1909,
Hitler sought out Lanz and asked for back copies.
- One of the two major administrative units of the German civil
administration in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union,
headed by Alfred Rosenberg, as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern
Territories; the other was Reichskommissariat Ukraine. Ostland included
the three Baltic states -- Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia -- as well
as western Belorussia and the western Minsk district in Soviet Belorussia.
- (plural: ostraca) Ancient inscribed potsherd.
- City in southern Poland that translates to Auschwitz in German.
It was 80 percent Jewish in 1939, with 11 synagogues. Also refers
to the forced-labor camp that became a concentration camp in the
suburbs of Cracow. Established in 1942, it was destroyed by departing
Nazis on January 14, 1944, when the last of its prisoners went to
- Weekly children's magazine.
Ottoman Empire Rule
- (1517-1917) The land of Israel was conquered by the Turkish Ottoman
Empire and divided into four districts. It was attached to the Province
of Damascus and ruled from Istanbul.
Oz V'Shalom/Netivot Shalom
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- (Heb. Strength and Peace/Paths of Peace) Israeli religious peace
movement that supports territorial compromise as a means to peace
with the Palestinians.