- (Arab. the catastrophe).
The Arab world commemorates Nakba Day each year on the anniversary of the creation of the State of Israel.
- A semitic people who inhabited the Negev and ancient Edom in Transjordan
from the third century BCE to the seventh century CE. The Nabateans
were nomads at first, then became travelers and led caravans along
the Spice Route. The Nabateans founded six cities in the Negev.
They left no written records, but are mentioned in Greek and Latin
Nabi or Navi
- (pl. nebiim). A prophet in ancient Israel;
also in Islam. Muhammad is the Muslim nabi par excellence
(see also rasul). Nevi'im (or Nebiim)
became a designation for a section of the Jewish scriptures; see
- Nabi Musa Rioting
- Rioting in 1920 in the Jewish Quarter in which a number of Jews and Muslims were killed and wounded.
- Pride and joy; pleasure that parents receive from their children.
- Nachshon Operation
- Initiated on April 6, 1948, and lasting until April 15, this operation succeeded in opening the road to Jerusalem long enough to push through three large convoys stuffed with food and weapons. One of the largest operations of the War of Independence, 1,500 soldiers fielded by the Haganah attacked five different locations. The name Operation Nachshon was derived from the biblical personage Nachshon Ben Aminadav who was the first to jump into the Red Sea when the Jews fled Egypt.
Nacht und Nebel
- (Ger.) Night and Fog, the code name given to the decree
of December 12, 1941, by the German High Command of the Armed Forces
which directed that persons in occupied territories guilty of activities
against Germany's armed forces were to be deported to Germany for
trial by special courts and held in concentration camps.
- (Hebrew for river, riverbed) A regular unit of the Israel Defense
Forces training cadres for agricultural settlements.
- A fool.
- (Heb., prince, leader). See Judah the Prince.
National Religious Party (NRP)
- Israel's most influential Zionist religious party, and a coalition partner in almost all the nation's governments; known earlier as Mizrahi.
National Water Carrier
- Israel's central freshwater artery,completed in 1964,
brings water from the north and central regions, through a network
of giant pipes, aqueducts, open canals, reservoirs, tunnels, dams
and pumping stations, to the semi-arid south.
- Nationality Law
- On April 1, 1952, the Knesset passed a law that grants Israeli citizenship automatically to any Jew who immigrates to Israel under the 1950 Law of Return.
- Hebrew for Prophet
Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party or
- Founded in Germany on January 5, 1919, it was characterized by
a centralist and authoritarian structure. Its platform was based
on militaristic, racial, anti-Semitic and nationalistic policies.
The Nazi Party membership and political power grew dramatically
in the 1930s, partly based on political propaganda, mass rallies
- See nabi.
- Babylonian emperor who captured Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E., ending the First Temple period.
- (Lit. closing). The closing service of Yom Kippur.
- Hebrew for soul.
- The southern, mostly arid region of Israel.
- The monthly magazine of the settlers of Judea, Samaria, and Gaza; published by the Yesha council and largely influenced by Gush Emunim.
- A line of development from the philosophy of Plato that emphasized
the mystical dimensions of its dualistic view of reality, so that
union with the ultimate One was a major goal. Influenced the development
of mysticism in each of the three religious traditions.
- Eternal light.
- Miracle; also slang for instant coffee.
- Soul or breath.
- “Paths of Peace.” Taken from the verse in Proverbs, “Your way is the way of pleasantness, and all Your paths are those of peace.” More mass-movement oriented and more religious than Oz v'Shalom, and to its right politically. Founded in 1982, merged with Oz v'Shalom (q.v.) in 1985.
- The haredi group that is most extreme in its hostility to the State of Israel.
- a Prophetess
- The collection of Christian canonical writings that together with
the Old Testament (see also Apocrypha) constitute the
- Laws of purity - mainly female cleanliness laws.
- Former W.W.I Submarine Commander & war hero turned Evangelical
Priest. Active member in the Confessing Church. Pastor Niemoller
spent the duration of the war in various concentration camps as
"personal prisoner of the Fuhrer".
Night And Fog Decree
- Secret order issued by Hitler on December 7, 1941, to seize persons
endangering German security who were to vanish without a trace
into night and fog.
Night of the Long Knives
- Hitler purge of the SA, which took place on June 30, 1934. During
the "Night of the Long Knives" Hitler had many of the
SA leadership murdered as well as others whom he viewed as a threat
to his power.
- (pl. nigunim). Wordless prayer melody, usually repeated
many times over to create a spiritual mood.
- (Lit. comforting mourners). One of the purposes of Jewish practices
relating to death and mourning.
- (Heb., Netzach Yisrael Lo Yishaker: Israel Will Survive
Forever). Jewish underground spy ring based in the Israeli town of Zichron Ya'acov. During the First World War NILI functioned with the British
Army and helped to liberate Palestine from the Turks.
- Nine Point Israel Peace Plan
- Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban’s plan before the Untied Nations on October 8, 1967 that called for:
- Long-lasting peace
- Secured and recognized borders
- Security provisions to prevent another war
- International waterway freedom of navigation
- Refugee solution
- Israeli recognition of Christian and Islamic rights to their holy places
- Acknowledgement of sovereignty
- Regional cooperation
Nissim (ben Reuben Gerondi)
- (c. 1310-c. 1375) Also known as “the RaN;” talmudic commentator; Spain.
- Wedding ceremony.
- (Heb. Sheva mitzvot b'nai Noach) The covenant God made with Noah and his sons, that is, with all
the people that survived the flood (Gen. 9:8-17). In rabbinic literature
it is interpreted as seven commandments that God gave the whole
of humanity. The most widely accepted version of the commandments
includes the following: to abstain from 1) idolatry (also from polytheism
= worshipping multiple gods); 2) murder; 3) sexual immorality, especially
adultery and incest; 4) blasphemy; 5) robbery; 6) brutality against
animals; and 7) to establish courts of justice (the only positive
commandment). Non-Jews who keep these laws will, according to rabbinic
teaching, have part in the world to come. These laws obviously played
a role in the considerations of the council in Jerusalem (Acts 15),
where the Jewish apostles decided, not to expect gentile followers
of Jesus (Christians) to keep the full extent of the Torah.
- A small town to the east of Vilna which was incorporated into
the city of Vilna (Vilnius) in 1947. It was the site of a small
labor camp, the last camp in the Vilna district to be liquidated
in July 1943 because of suspected partisan activity. The workers
were taken to Ponary and killed.
- (Ger. National Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei)The National
Socialist German Workers Party, the party led by Adolf Hitler.
- The awareness of the presence of God. This meaning of the term was developed by the theologian Rudolf Otto in The Idea of the Holy (1923).
- Two anti-Jewish statutes enacted September 1935 during the Nazi
party's national convention in Nuremberg. The first, the Reich Citizenship
Law, deprived German Jews of their citizenship and all pertinent,
related rights. The second, the Law for the Protection of German
Blood and Honor, outlawed marriages of Jews and non-Jews, forbade
Jews from employing German females of childbearing age, and prohibited
Jews from displaying the German flag. Many additional regulations
were attached to the two main statutes, which provided the basis
for removing Jews from all spheres of German political, social,
and economic life. The Nuremberg Laws carefully established definitions
of Jewishness based on bloodlines. Thus, many Germans of mixed ancestry,
called "Mischlinge," faced anti-Semitic discrimination
if they had a Jewish grandparent.
- Trial of 24 major Nazi figures in Nuremberg, Germany,
in 1945 and 1946 before the International Military Tribunal.