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Glossary:
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Jacob
One of the Israelite patriarchs, the son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham in the accounts in the book of Genesis. See also Israel.
Jacob, Benno (1862-1945)
Conservative rabbi and Bible commentator; Germany.
Jarring Mission
Gunnar Jarring, the Swedish ambassador to the Soviet Union was appointed representative to the Middle East of the UN secretary-general on December 27, 1967 with the goal of implementing Resolution 242. The mission failed because of Israel and Jordan and Egypt’s preconditions and the War of Attrition. After the War of Attrition and Nasser’s death in Egypt, Jarring resumed his mission in 1971 and demanded Israeli withdrawal to pre-67 borders and an Egyptian willingness to negotiate peace with Israel. Both sides refused and Jarring’s mission was terminated.
Jenin Controversy
During Defensive Shield Operation, Israeli troops entered Jenin Refugee Camp where they were met with harsh resistance. The IDF killed 52 Palestinians and the UN investigated claims of massacre but found them unsubstantial. The IDF found huge arsenal of weapons in the refugee camp which raised doubts about the function of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency’s function and presence in the camps.
Jericho Conference (1948)
On December 1, 1948, the King Abdullah I of Jordan decided to unite the West Bank and East Jerusalem, which were controlled by Transjordan, with the Hashomite Kingdom.
Jericho Plan
The Jericho Plan advocated partial disengagement agreement with Jordan and return of Jericho to Jordanian rule. The declaration at the Rabat Arab Summit that the PLO was the representative of the Palestinian people hardened Israeli opposition to the organization and derailed the Jericho Plan’s progress.
Jerusalem
Ancient capital of the Kingdom of Israel and capital of the modern State of Israel. Jerusalem holds great importance to all three major monotheistic faiths as the home of the the Dome of the Rock, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and the remnants of the Jewish Temple. Following the Israeli War of Independence in 1948, Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan. It was later reunited after the Israeli victory in the 1967 Six Day War.
Jerusalem Commission
In 1947, the Second Special Session of the UN General Assembly called for the creation of a commissioner to work with the Jerusalem communities. Before he could arrive, the War of Independence broke out.
Jerusalem Underground
A small group of Jewish settlers in the West Bank who carried out violent organized attacks against the Palestinians in the 1980s.
Jehovah
One of many names thought to be the correct pronunciation of the tetragrammaton (divine name comprised of the Hebrew equivalent letters YHWH). The name Jehovah is used mostly by Christians, as Jewish tradition maintains that it is a sin to try to even pronounce God's name.
Jehovah's Witnesses
A religious sect, originating in the United States, organized by Charles Taze Russell. The Witnesses base their beliefs on the Bible and have no official ministers. Recognizing only the kingdom of God, the Witnesses refuse to salute the flag, to bear arms in war, and to participate in the affairs of government. This doctrine brought them into conflict with the Nazi's during WWII, during which time they were considered enemies of the state and relentlessly persecuted.
Jew
One who adheres to Judaism or is of Jewish lineage. See Judaism.
Jewish Agency
Organization formed in 1929 as the formal representative of the Jewish community vis-a-vis the British mandatory government. It gradually acquired the attributes of a proto-government for the Jewish community. After the establishment of the State of Israel, the Jewish Agency shifted its focus to issues common to the State and to Jewish communities abroad.
Jewish Brigade
Jewish volunteers in the British army during WWII. Many of these volunteers rose to prominence during the 1948 War of Independence when they were integrated into the general Haganah forces.
Jewish Colonization Association
Organization, founded 1891, to assist Jewish emigration from countries of persecution or depressed economies to countries of opportunity.
Jewish Ghetto Police (OD)
In Poland, as in other occupied territories, the Nazis established Jewish police forces to control the Jewish population in the ghettos. In Krakow, the Jewish police, armed with truncheons, assisted the Nazis in the liquidation of the ghetto.
Jewish Historical Institute
Originally founded by Jews in Krakow as the Jewish historical Commission, it moved to Warsaw after 1951 and is now the main repository of Gestapo records, archives and Jewish ceremonial art. It is located across the street from the site of the Great Synagogue. Its warehouse has a huge collection, hidden from public view.
Jewish Legion
Jewish units in the British army during World War I. See also Zion Mule Corps.
Jewish National Fund
The land purchase and development fund of the World Zionist Organization, founded in 1920.
Jewish Star
The six-pointed star emblem commonly associated with Judaism, also known as Magen David, Shield of David or Star of David.
Jihad
(Arab. Struggle) In Islam, the term may be used to refer to one's inner struggle, or to an external struggle. The term is generally used to refer to an Islamic holy war against non-Muslims and was invoked several times by Yasser Arafat against Israel- even after signing the Oslo Peace Agreement.
John
(Heb. Yochanan, meaning God is Merciful) A common first name. In Christianity, it is often used to refer to John the Baptist or John the Apostle.
Johnson Mission (1961)
Palestine Conciliation Commission (PCC) inquiry headed in 1961 by Joseph E. Johnson to try and find a solution to the Palestinian refugee problem. The commission concluded that a solution to the refugee problem would only be solved through an overall settlement.
Johnson Plan (1967)
Plan proposed by U.S. President Lyndon Johnson a week after the 1967 Six Day War. The plan called for: the mutual recognition of all states in the region, respect of international boundaries, equal maritime rights for all, and a solution to the Palestinian refugee crisis.
Johnston Plan (1953)
Plan proposed in 1953 by Eric Johnston, United States special representative to the Middle East. The plan sought a way to divide water resources between Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon but disagreement between the parties led to it not being implemented.
Joint Jordanian-PLO Committee
During an Arab summit meeting in Baghdad, organized to oppose Sadat’s peace initiative, a joint Jordanian-Palestine Liberation Organization committee was formed to oppose the Camp David process and to set up the Steadfastness Aid Fund, or Sumud, to provide financial aid to the Palestinians.
Josephus/Flavius Josephus
Jewish general and author in the latter part of the 1st century CE who wrote a massive history (“Antiquities”) of the Jews and a detailed treatment of the Jewish revolt against Rome in 66-73 CE (and his involvement in it).
Joshua Bin-Nun
The successor of Moses that conquered the land of Canaan and divided the conquered land among the Israelite tribes. His life and activities are described in the Biblical Book of Joshua.
Jubilee Year
Every seventh year of harvest the land gets to rest.
Jubilees, Book of
Extra-canonical work, dating from the middle of the Second Temple period, purporting to be a secret revelation to Moses, upon his second ascent to Mount Sinai.
Judah the Prince/Yehudah Hanassi
Leader of the Jewish community of Judea around 200 CE and chief compiler of the Mishnah.
Judaism
Oldest of the three primary monotheistic faiths; Judaism traces it's philosophy and tradition through the Torah and cultural roots to the Land of Israel.
Judas Iscariot
(Gre. Judah, Heb. May God be Praised) One of the original twelve apostles of Jesus. According to Christian tradition, Judas informed the Jewish high priests as to Jesus' whereabouts for the price of thirty pieces of silver. He is thus perceived as sneaky, traitorous, and miserly, and his memory was often used as a way to justify Catholic persecution of the Jews.
Jude
(Ger.) "Jew"; often used in a pejorative manner.
Judea
Southern region of ancient Israel and its own sovereign territory after the split between itself and the northern kingdom of Israel.
Judea and Samaria
The biblical names of the land wets of the Jordan River. The term West Bank was not utilized by Israel until the 1993 Declaration of Principles.
Judenfrei
(Ger. Jew-free) Phrase used by Hitler and the Nazi regime to refer to their plan of establishing a Jew-free Europe through the implementation of the genocidal "Final Solution".
Judengelb
(Ger. Jewish Yellow) Term for the yellow Star of David badges that Jews were forced to wear in Nazi occupied lands during the Holocaust.
Judenjagd
(Ger. Jew Hunt) The Nazi process of searching for any Jews who were in hiding after a massacre had occurred.
Judenrat
Council of Jewish representatives set up in communities and ghettos under the Nazis to execute their instructions.
Judenrein
A locality from which all Jews had been eliminated. See also Judenfrei.
July 20 Plot (1944)
Failed attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944.

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