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Glossary:
"I"


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Ibn Ezra, Abraham (1089-1164)
Poet, grammarian, and Bible commentator; Spain.
IDF
(Israeli Defense Forces) Israeli military. See also Tzahal.
Idolatry
(Gre.To Worship an Image) Idol worship; forbidden in the biblical traditions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
I.G. Farben
A German conglomerate of eight chemical companies, including BASF, Bayer, and Hoechst, that made extensive use of slave labor during the Holocaust. I. G. Farben was an important contributor to Hitler's rearming of Germany and the actual war effort.
ILGWU
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union; founded in 1909 in response to a strike in New York in which 20,000 women shirtwaist makers protested sweatshop conditions. Later, in 1911, a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist factory killed 146 workers, many of them young girls. An inquiry revealed that the fire exits had been locked to prevent the girls from taking long work breaks. The tragedy helped t o strengthen the movement and led to new laws to protect workers.
Inspektor der Konzentrationslager (IKL)
(Ger.) Concentration camp inspector during the Holocaust.
International Conference
An idea proposed by King Hussein of Jordan and President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt in 1986 of an international conference on the Middle East with the US and the Soviet Union. The Labor Party supported while the Likud opposed this idea.
International Criminal Court
Israel originally supported an international court that would try human offenses but then opposed it as the increasing anti-Semitism in the United Nations showed that the court would become merely a political launching pad for anti-Israel propaganda. Thus, it voted against its inception in 1998.
Interniertenlager (Ilag)
(Ger) Civilian internment camp in World War II.
Illegal Immigration
Immigration to Israel before the establishment of the State and in defiance with British decrees. See also Ha'apalah and Aliyah Bet.
Imahot
(Heb. mothers) REfers to the matriarchs of the Jewish people: Sarah, Rivkah, Rachel, and Leah.
Imitatio Dei
(Lat. Imitation of God) Theological concept of imitating God by emulating his characteristics and virtues. In Christianity this concept is extended to imitating Jesus through his actions as well. See also Anthropomorphism.
Immanence
In theology, the aspect of God's nearness and intimacy, as opposed to God's transcendence.
Interim Agreement (“Oslo II”)
Agreement signed between Israel and the PLO on September 28, 1995, which stipulated the redeployment of Israeli forces out of Palestinian cities in the West Bank and transfer of power to the Palestinian Authority of civil services in the West Bank's Palestinian villages in conjunction with Palestinian commitments to Israeli security.
Intertestamental Period
The historical period believed by many, particularly Protestants, to exist between the occurrences of the Old Testament and the New Testament (ca. 400-5 BCE).
Intifada
(Arab. Shaking Off). Palestinian uprising in Gaza and the West Bank held between December 1987 and September 1993 to protest Israeli occupation.
Intrafada
Cycle of violence coinciding with the intifada in which nearly 1,000 Palestinians were killed by other Palestinians on suspicion of collaborating with Israel.
Inyan
(Heb.) Idea or concept .
Irgun
(Heb. acronym. Irgun Tzvai Le'umi; National Military Organization) Jewish underground army established in Israel during the period of the British Mandate. It stood in staunch opposition to the Haganah and their policy of cooperation with the British, and attacked several British personnel and bases of operation. Several Irgun members later went on to serve as politicians in the Knesset (Israeli parliament), including Menachem Begin, the former commander of the Irgun, who later prime minister of Israel.
Isaac
(Heb. Yitzchak) One of the Israelite patriarchs, the son of Abraham and father of Jacob in the accounts in the book of Genesis.
Islamic Jihad
A terrorist group that split from the Muslim Brotherhood in the mid-1980s. They advocate armed struggle to liberate Palestine and strongly opposed the Oslo accords. They did not oppose the Palestine Liberation Organization and worked with the Unified National Leadership of the Uprising.
Ismaliah Summit
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin met in Ismalia, Egypt on December 26, 1977 and agreed to begin military and political committee meetings, the first of which occurred on January 17, 1978.
Israel
A name given to the Jewish patriarch Jacob according to Genesis 32.38. In Jewish biblical times, this name refers to the northern tribes, but also to the entire nation. Historically, Jews have continued to regard themselves as the true continuation of the ancient Israelite national-religious community. In modern times, it also refers to the political state of Israel.
Israeli Arabs
Those Arabs who chose to stay in the area that became the State of Israel during the War of Independence. They include Muslim Arabs, Christian Arabs, Druze, and Bedouins. They enjoy equality and full citizenship in Israel and participate actively in its politics.
Israeli Defense Force
Israel’s military, includes its Ground Forces, Air Force, Navy, and Military Intelligence. It came into existence when David Ben Gurion unified the defense forces of the Yishuv during the War of Independence. The IDF drafts all Israelis at age 18 except for Israeli Arabs, who may choose to serve.
Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty
The day after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, King Hussein of Jordan and Yitzhak Rabin of Israel signed a formal peace treaty on October 26, 1994 in the Arava Valley between Israel and Jordan .US President Bill Clinton was in attendance and Yassir Arafat of the Palestinian National Authority was not invited. The peace agreement addressed many issues in its 30 articles and five annexures, including Palestinian refugees, borders, water rights, environmental issues, and holy places.
Israel-Lebanon Agreement
Formal agreement signed in 1982 between Israel and Lebanon after the Israeli invasion of southern Lebanon during "Operation Peace for Galilee". The agreement called for Israeli and Syrian withdrawal from Lebanon, respect of the international border, border security to be maintained, and the normalization of relations between Israel and Lebanon.
Israel-Syria Disengagement
Aided by Henry Kissinger’s shuttle diplomacy, Israel and Syria reaffirmed a cease-fire they had achieved after the Yom Kippur War in 1973. It allowed for disengagement of both countries’ forces from the Golan Heights, where it created disengagement zones. On May 31, 1974, a new cease-fire line was established in the Golan Heights and Israel withdrew from Quneitra, Syria.
Israel-United States Memorandum of Understanding
Several agreements, each one including pledges made by the United States to strategically affirm Israel’s security and economy and strengthened the ties between the countries.
Iyar
The second month of the Jewish calendar year.
I.Z.L.
See Irgun.
Izzedin Al-Qassem Brigade
Named after a Palestinian-Arab who called for Jihad against the British and the Zionists during the period of the British Mandate, Izzedin Al-Qassem is the military wing of Hamas, and an umbrella for other smaller terrorist groups responsible for attacks against Israeli civilians.

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