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Glossary:
"F"


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Fahd Plan
Proposed by Crowned Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabia in August of 1981. The eight point plan called for the creation of a Palestinian state according to the pre-1967 borders and Arab recognition of Israel's right to exist.
Faisal-Weizmann Agreement
Agreement signed in 1919 between Emir Faisal ibn Hussein (leader of the Arab Revolt and representative of the Arab Federation) and Chaim Weizmann (President of the World Zionist Organization). The agreement endorsed the Balfour Declaration and the creation of a Jewish state where Palestinian-Arabs would have protected rights and receive agricultural and technological aid from the local Jewish population.
Faith
A general term for religious belief used both of an attitude (to have faith) and of a collection of doctrines (the faith). See also "emuna".
Fascism
A social and political ideology with the primary guiding principle that the state or nation is the highest priority, rather than personal or individual freedoms.
Fatah
(Arabic. Conquest) A Palestinian organization that has carried out numerous attacks against Israel in the name of Palestinian nationalism. It was founded in secret during the late 1950s and appearing publicly in 1965, Fatah soon became the largest and most important of the organizations within the PLO, taking full control in 1968 under the leadership of Yasser Arafat. Fatah remained in control of the PLO until Hamas was elected into power in 2006.
Fatah Revolutionary Council
Group that split off from Fatah in 1974 and was then expelled from the PLO. The group is anti-Arafat and believes that he was not tough enough. Members of the group are also believed to be responsible for the assassinations of several PLO moderates.
Fatah Uprising
Splinter group from Fatah established in 1983 by Sa'ed Musa Muragha in response to Arafat's corruption and the situation in Lebanon. This group opposes any political contract with Israel.
von Faulhaber, Michael
Catholic Bishop who actively protested Nazi intimidation of the Churches. Gave a series of sermons condemning the "German Christian's" efforts to remove the Old Testament from Christian teaching.
Fedayeen
(Arabic. Self-sacrificers) Palestinian militants who carried out attacks on Israel during the 1950's and 1960's from across the Jordanian and Egyptian borders.
Federal Plan
A plan proposed in the United Nations by India, Iran, and Yugoslavia that created a federal Palestine, with Arabs and Jews receiving internal autonomy. It was rejected in favor of the Partition Plan.
Fellaheen
(Arabic.) A term for a peasant or agricultural laborer in an Arab country.
Fez Plan
Peace proposal based on the Fahd Plan and introduced during the Arab League Summit held in Fez, Morocco in 1982. The plan offered Israel recognition in exchange for full unilateral withdrawal from all “occupied lands” and recognized the PLO as the sole representative of the Palestinian people.
FIDA (Palestinian Democratic Union)
Leftist Palestinian organization which broke away from the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine in 1990. Envisions a democratic system of government and the Oslo Peace Process.
Fifth of Iyar
Hebrew calendar date upon which the State of Israel was founded (English date: May 15, 1948).
Final Solution
(Ger. Endloesung). In Nazi terminology, the Nazi planned mass murder and total annihilation of the Jews.
Finkelstein, Louis
(1885-1992) Scholar of rabbinics and chancellor of the Jewish Theological Seminary from 1940 to 1972; United States.
Five Stage Plan
A plan outlined by Shimon Peres in 1985 that called for negotiations between the US, Egypt, Jordan, Israel, and Palestinian representatives, who were not members of the PLO, as well as a variety of working groups and conferences to promote Palestinian self-governance.
Fiqh
Islamic jurisprudence based on the study of the Quran, the sunna and other sources. Several legal schools of Islamic jurisprudence have been developed over the centuries. The most commonly practices and referenced today include four major Sunni schools - Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki and Hanbali - and the Shia Jafari school.
First Temple Period (ca. 850 - 586 B.C.)
Period during which the first Holy Temple existed and functioned until destroyed by the Babylonians.
Fleishig
(Yid. Meat) Used to describe kosher foods that contain meat and therefore cannot be eaten with dairy. See kashrut.
Flight Tax
Tax levied in December 1931 on all emigrating German nationals in an attempt to deter flight during the depression.
Force 17
Originally formed to protect PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, it later evolved into an elite Palestinian combat unit and operated several missions against Israel during the First Lebanon War of the early 1980's. Following the Oslo Accords it once again became Arafat's personal security force, and is suspected of carrying out attacks against Israel during the Second Intifada of 2000.
Foreign Service
The German Foreign Service became a crucial area by which the resisters could maintain contacts with the Allies and other outside organizations. Foreign Service representatives like Adam von Trott zu Solz and others spent much of their time trying to arrange for a collaborative relationship with the Allies.
Four Mothers Movement
Grassroots Israeli movement started after a 1997 helicopter collision killed 73 Israeli soldiers on their way to serve in the security zone between Israel and Lebanon. Started by families of the deceased soldiers, the movement advocated an end to the Israeli presence in Southern Lebanon which ended in 2000 under the Barak administration.
Four Species
Fruit and branches used to fulfill the commandment to “rejoice before the L-rd” during Sukkot.
Fourth Geneva Convention
International Red Cross convention held in 1949 which prohibits occupying powers from enacting group punishments upon civilians. Israel claims that since it captured the West Bank and Gaza from Jordan and Egypt who were also occupying powers they are not required to enact the measures laid out by the convention, though in 2001 the committee said they do. Until then, Israel had been operating on its own moral guidelines.
Four Year Plan
Hitler’s plan in 1936 for a revitalization and restructuring of the German economy and rearmament within a four year period.
Frank, Hans
(1900-1946) Governor-General of occupied Poland from 1939 to 1945. A member of the Nazi Party from its earliest days and Hitler's personal lawyer, he announced, “Poland will be treated like a colony; the Poles will become slaves of the Greater German Reich.” By 1942, more than 85% of the Jews in Poland had been transported to extermination camps. Frank was tried at Nuremberg, convicted, and executed in 1946.
French Embargo
 
France imposed an arms embargo on Israel in response to its preemptive strikes at the start of the Six Day War. It refused to deliver 50 supersonic Mirage IV fighters that Israel had already paid for. In retaliation, Israel obtained technical details of the Mirage IV designs and developed its own fighters clandestinely. The embargo terminated the cooperation on the night before the Suez War resulting in France’s lack of sympathy toward Israel and switch of support to Syria and Lebanon, the US becoming the principle supplier of arms to Israel, and a spur in Israel’s own arms industry.
Frick, Wilhelm
(1877-1946) A dedicated Nazi bureaucrat who was appointed Minister of the Interior in 1933 where he was responsible for enacting Nazi racial laws. In 1946, he was tried at Nuremberg, convicted, and executed.
von Fritsch, Baron Werner
(1880-1939) General Fritsch had been incensed over the murders of General Schleicher and his assistant. He was dismissed on trumped up charges of homosexuality. Although later reinstated his career had been ruined. He died in combat.
Frum
(Yid.) Ritually observant and pious Jew.
Führer
(Ger. Leader) Adolf Hitler's title in Nazi Germany.
Fuhrerstaat
(Ger. Leader state) Germany after 1933.
Fundamentalism
A term originally applied to conservative, Bible-centered Protestant Christians (many of whom now prefer to call themselves "evangelicals"), but more recently extended to apply to the religiously authoritarian of all sorts who interpret their scriptures literally and in general favor a strict adherence to certain traditional doctrines and practices.

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