Also sometimes called formative, proto-,
middle, and even late Judaism. Refers to
Judaism in the intertestamental period (and slightly later) as a
development from the religion of ancient Israel, but prior to the
emergence of its classical, rabbinic form in the early centuries
- Predominantly Arab section of Jerusalem which includes the Old City of Jerusalem, it was held under Jordanian control from 1948-1967, and officially annexed to Israel in 1980.
- A Judeo-Christian sect (or category) in the 2nd-4th centuries
CE; accepted much of Mosaic Torah (circumcision, sabbath, etc.)
but rejected sacrifices; accepted Jesus/Joshua as messiah but not
his divinity; some Ebionites opposed the doctrines of Paul.
- A central organization of the haredi community in Jerusalem.
- The name of paradise in the Jewish biblical account in Genesis
1, where Adam and Eve were created.
- Oriental Jewish communities.
- Egel HaZahav
- The Golden Calf created and worshiped by the Jewish People at the foot of Mt. Sinai.
Egypt-Israeli Peace Treaty
- Signed by President Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel in the presence of President Jimmy Carter on March 26, 1979 at the conclusion of the Camp David Accords. The boarders were opened on May 27 with the inauguration of an air corridor and on February 26, 1980 the nations exchanged ambassadors.
- (1906-1962) SS Lieutenant-colonel and head of the Jewish Section
of the Gestapo. Eichmann participated in the Wannsee Conference
(January 20, 1942). He was instrumental in implementing the Final
Solution by organizing the transportation of Jews to death
camps from all over Europe. He was arrested at the end of World
War II in the American zone, but escaped, went underground, and
disappeared. On May 11, 1960, members of the Mossad (Israeli intelligence agency) uncovered his whereabouts and smuggled him from Argentina to Israel.
Eichmann was tried in Jerusalem (April-December 1961), convicted,
and sentenced to death. He was executed on May 31, 1962.
- (1928-1943) Eicke joined the Nazi party and the SA in 1928. He transferred
to the SS in 1930. Appointed commandant of Dachau in 1933, Eicke
later became the inspector of concentration camps. He was known
for his cruel treatment of prisoners and in 1939 he was given command of the Death's Head division
of the Waffen-SS. He was killed on the eastern front on February
- (Heb.) Spring, water source.
- (Heb. Spring of the kid (young goat)) A large spring located near the Dead Sea.
- (Heb. Without limit) A kabbalistic designation
for the divinethe unlimited one. In early Judaism
and Christianity, refers to those considered to be chosen by God
for a specific purpose; in some Christian predestination schemes
(e.g. Calvinistic), the elect are those whom God has
chosen (in advance) to have eternal life.
Ein Vered Circle
- Nonreligious members of kibbutzim and moshavim who organized in 1975 to support Gush Emunim; first meeting took place in Moshav Ein Vered.
- The four (A, B, C, D) mobile units of the Security Police and
SS Security Service that followed the German armies into the Soviet
Union in June 1941. Their charge was to kill all Jews, as well as
Soviet commissars and "mental defectives." They were supported
by units of the uniformed German Order Police and used local Ukrainian,
Latvian, Lithuanian, and Estonian volunteers for the killings. The
victims were shot and buried in mass graves. At least 1.3 million
Jews were killed in this manner.
- Company-sized component of the Einsatzgruppen.
Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg fur die Besetzten Gebiete
- A bureau managed by Alfred Rosenberg, created July 1940, that
was responsible for the appropriation of cultural and ideological
materials from German occupied territories. Rosenberg's official
title in this connection was The Führer's Representative for the
Supervision of the Intellectual and Ideological Instruction of the
National Socialist Party. The materials in question included millions
of books and manuscripts and hundreds of thousands of paintings,
sculptures and other art objects. Most of these were simply
appropriated without recompense of any sort to their owners, a significant
number of whom in Western European countries were, Jews
or Jewish organizations. Included as well, however were
the writings and collections of Free Masons, Jehovah's Witnesses,
communists and socialists.
- A subdivision of an Einsatzkommando
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
- (1890-1969) American general and 34th president of the United States between
1953-61. In 1942 he was named U.S. Commander of the European Theater
of Operations. He commanded the American landings in North Africa
and in February 1943 became chief of all the Allied forces in North
Africa. After successfully directing the invasions of Sicily and
Italy, he was called to England to become chief commander of the
Allied Expeditionary Forces. He was largely responsible for the
cooperation of the Allied armies in the battle for the liberation
of the European continent and was present when Nazi concentration camps were first liberated.
- Part of Cold War containment doctrine, it stated that the United States would help the economy of the Middle East as well as come to the aid of any country under attack from the Eastern Axis. It was invoked several times by Jordan which sought defense against a potential military coup d'etat led by Egypt. Lebanon and Jordan invoked the doctrine following the Iraqi military coup in July 1958 and received aid from the US and Great Britain.
- (Heb. To My People) Organization founded in May 1983, to address the religious/secular divide in Israel.
- A term used theologically in Judaism to indicate God's choice
of Israel to receive the covenanta choice not based on the
superiority or previous accomplishments of the people, but on God's
graciousness (see covenant). In Christianity, the concept of election
was applied to the new Israel of Jesus' followers in
the last times.
- (Heb. My God, My God) Famous poem written by Hannah Senesh (Israeli paratrooper sent to Nazi occupied Hungary on a rescue mission during WWII who was captured and tortured to death).
Eliezer of Beaugency
- Twelfth-century Bible commentator from northern France.
- Elijah the Prophet.
- Hebrew general term for deity. (See also YHWH)
- Gush Emunim's most famous illicit Garin which was allowed to settle near Nablus after seven previous evacuations by the army.
- Religious-Zionist publication.
- (Heb. The Valley of Tears) Located in the Golan Heights, it is the site of the longest ongoing tank battle in history, which occurred during the 1973 Yom Kippur War against Syrian forces. but also a phrase from a well-known Friday Evening hymn.
- (Heb.) Truth.
- (Heb. Truth and faith) Statement of Principles of Conservative Judaism, published in 1988.
- (Heb. faith or belief). See faith.
- Enacted on March 23, 1933, the law provided the basis of Hitler’s dictatorship by abolishing the Reichstag and allowing the Chancellor to prepare laws to be enacted by the cabinet.
- (Ger. The final solution) Campaign
of extermination against the Jews of Europe.
Enoch, Books of
- Extra canonical apocalyptic books relating to Enoch, who “walked with God” (Gen. 5:24); the earliest of the three was composed in the 2nd century B.C. E.
- (Ger. Degenerate) German style of music.
Epstein, Baruch Halevi
- (1860-1942) Rabbinic scholar and author of Torah T'mimah, a commentary applying statements of the rabbinic tradition to the biblical text; Russia.
- One of a number of Jewish private schools in Vilna. This high
school was distinguished by the fact that it was progressive, secular
and that Polish was the language of instruction. Long after the
war the records of the school were found by a former student, Yulian
Rafes, who collected many of them into a book. It gives a glimpse
into the lives of a privileged class of Vilna students before the
- (Heb. The land of Israel) A maximalist term used by some right-wingers to refer to the borders of the ancient kingdom of Israel which includes all of the West Bank and parts of Jordan.
- (Heb. Evening). Term often used to refer to a holiday eve.
- (Ger.. The Enabling Law) Passed March 24, 1933, it granted Hitler the power to pass laws without the approval of the Riechstag (German governing and legislative body) and marked one of the first steps of his rise to power.
- (Ger. Harvest Festival) The Erntefest massacre was the single
largest Jewish massacre of WWII. During the Erntefest 42,000
Jews were killed (surpassing the 33,000 who were killed in the Babi Yar massacre
outside of Kiev).
- (Heb.) Betrothal; engagement .
- (Gre. last or the end-time) Field of study that deals with predictions of the end of days. (See
also chiliastic, millenarian, and apocalypse).
- Eser Makot
- (Heb. Ten Plagues). Refers to the Ten Plagues God administered to Pharaoh and the Egyptians.
- Jewish sect in the 1st century C.E. according
to Josephus, Philo, and other sources. (See also Qumran).
- Hero of the Purim story who saved the Jews from annihilation in ancient Persia.
- (Gre. Cause or origin)
A term used to describe or label stories that claim to explain the
reason for something being (or being called) what it is. For example,
in the old Jewish creation story (Genesis 2.23), woman (Heb. ishah)
is given that name because she has been taken out of the
side or rib of man (Heb. ish).
- A citron traditionally used for ritual purposes along with a lulav, haddassim, and aravot, during the harvest festival of Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles).The commandment to do so is based on a verse in Leviticus 23.40 which states On the first day (of Sukkot) you shall take the fruit of the hadar (beautiful) tree." The sages later explain that the hadar (beautiful) tree refers to a citron tree.
- (Heb. Tree of life) Wooden roller to which the handwritten Sefer Torah is attached.
- Acronym for Irgun Tzvai L'umi, National Military Organization; Revisionist Zionist para-military organization during the period of the British Mandate.
- The social Darwinist principle of strengthening the qualities
of a race by controlling inherited characteristics. Term coined
by Francis Galton in 1883 and utilized in Nazi ideology.
- Scheme for the ransom of about 1,000,000 Jews remaining in Europe
to save them from extermination initiated by the "Working Group''
of Bratislava in the autumn of 1942.
European Union Special Envoy to the Middle East
- A person appointed to maintain close contact between all parties
involved in the Middle East Peace Process and working with them
to bring them closer together.
- The original meaning of this term was an easy and painless death
for the terminally ill. However, the Nazi euthanasia program took
on quite a different meaning: the taking of eugenic measures to
improve the quality of the German race. This program
culminated in enforced mercy deaths for the incurably
insane, permanently disabled, deformed and superfluous.
Three major classifications were developed: 1) euthanasia for incurables;
2) direct extermination by special treatment; and 3)
experiments in mass sterilization.
Evacuation Compensation Bill
- On February 16, 2005, the Knesset passed this bill as part of the Gaza Withdrawal Plan. It endorsed the withdrawal from the Gush Katif bloc in the Gaza Strip as well as the financial support to implement the plan.
- Conference held at Evian les-Bains in France on July 1938 seeking to find a solution to the increasing problem of Jewish refugees from German occupied lands. Though 31 countries were represented at the conference, none beside the Dominican Republic agreed to allow any substantial amount of Jewish immigration into their respective countries and little was accomplished.
- (Aramaic, rosh galuta, head of the exile).
A term used in early rabbinic Judaism for the head of the Jewish
community in exile in Babylonia. The exilarch was depicted as an
imperial dignitary, a member of the council of state, living in
semi-royal fashion, who appointed communal officers and judges and
was a descendant of the house of David.
- See galut.
- A modern philosophical position that has influenced Jewish and
Christian thought significantly, with emphasis on the idea that
meaningfulness must be created by people, to whom only existence
- (Gre. to exit or go out). Refers to the event
of the Israelites leaving Egypt (see also Passover) and to the biblical
book (see Pentateuch) that tells of that event. Also name given
to ship that left France July 11, 1947,
carrying 4,500 immigrants. Challenged and boarded by the British
Navythree Jews were killed. Immigrants were forcibly transported
back to Germany in British transport ships. Subject of film and
novel of same name by Leon Uris.
- Death camps established by the Nazi's during the Holocaust to annihilate Jews and other non-Aryan minorities. The six major extermination camps were established as part of
the Final Solution, in Poland. They were Cheimno, Belzec, Sobibor,
Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka and Majdanek.
Extradition Law of 1978
- Israel passed a law preventing the extradition of an Israeli citizen for crimes committed abroad before he or she became an Israeli citizen.
- (Heb/Yid.) Advice.
- Prophet in the Hebrew Bible with whom the reestablishment
of Judaism in Jerusalem in the 5th century B.C.E. is associated.
The events are recorded in a biblical book known by his name, and
he is also associated with apocryphal books and traditions.