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Cairo Agreement (1970)
- Agreement signed on November 3, 1970 between Lebanon and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) after they were expelled from Jordan. The agreement granted the PLO control of Southern Lebanon, access to arms and ability to administer their own affairs and oversee their refugee camps. They used this area as launching grounds for attacking Northern Israel. In addition to killing Israelis, this undermined Lebanese sovereignty and led to civil war.
- Cairo Agreement (1994)
- Signed in Cairo on May 4, 1994, this was the first of a series of agreements implementing Palestinian autonomy in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The agreement demarcated the areas of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to be handed over to the Palestinian National Authority. Israeli troops withdrew from these areas by May 18, 1994.
- Cairo Conference
- A follow-up meeting in Cairo on December 14, 1977 to Egyptian President Anwar Sadat’s visit to Jerusalem. Its attendees were representatives from Israel, Egypt, the United States, and the United Nations. However, the conference contained many speeches and no definite decisions.
- Cairo Dialogue
- Meeting in Cairo amongst leaders of Palestinian factions, including Fatah, Hamas, and Islamic Jihad, in 2002 due to international pressure in the wake of the suicide attacks against Israel. The talks did not result in a cease fire or any real agreement.
- In general, Christianity operates on a "solar" calendar
based on the relationship between the sun and the earth (365.25 days
per year). The main Christian observances are Easter, Pentecost, and
Christmas. The Islamic calendar is "lunar," based on the
relationship of earth and moon (354 days in a year). Thus, every 100
solar years are equal to about 103 lunar years. Muslim calendric observances
include fasting during the month of Ramadan, followed by the feast
of fast breaking (id al-fitr), and the time for pilgrimage
to Mecca (hajj) and associated practices such as the Feast
of Sacrifice. Judaism follows a lunar calendar adjusted every three
years or so to the solar cycle (by adding a second 12th month)thus
lunisolar. The oldest Jewish annual observances are Passover/Pesach,
Shavuot, Yom Kippur and Sukkot; other ancient celebrations include
Rosh Ha-Shana, Simhat Torah, Hanukkah and Purim. See also B.C.E.,
Camp David Accords (1978)
- Conducted in secret on the presidential retreat in Maryland, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat concluded two agreements that provided the basis for continuing peace negotiations. “The Framework for Peace in the Middle East” focused on autonomy for Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. “The Framework for Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel” paved the way for the Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty of 1979. The Accords addressed the definition of a Palestinian, the boundaries of the West Bank, and Jerusalem.
Camp David Talks (2000)
- Camp David meeting between U.S. President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat in 2000 to try and negotiate the final status of the Oslo Accords. The proposal offered the Palestinians: a future state with East Jerusalem as its capital, 95% of the West Bank, all of Gaza, and the return of a limited amount of refugees to Israel with reparations to be made to the remainder. Clinton and other parties present blamed the failure pf the talks on Arafat's refusal to compromise. The failure of the talks also played a large role in the outbreak of the Second Intifada a few months later. (See also "Clinton Plan").
- A small, anti-Zionist intellectual circle established in 1940 by poet Yonathan Ratosh; has advocated a complete separation between Israelis and Diaspora Jews and the creation of a large Canaanite federation made of Israelis and other Middle-Eastern minorities.
- A Nazi euphemism for the storage areas used for victims' belongings
in camps such as Auschwitz.
- Rabbi Nathan Shapiro's Cracow shtibl is a three-story
white renovated building, built in the 17th century. Legend says that
Rabbi Nathan Shapiro, author of Megalleh Amukot, a Kabbalistic
work, would sit every night, all night by the window, with a candle
burning bright. All night he would study. The people in the neighborhood
would walk by the shtibl and feel confident, seeing the candle burning
brightly. The shtibl became known as the Candle Shul. One night the
candle was not burning. The next day, Rabbi Nathan Shapiro was found
dead at his study table.
- The collection of books of the Bible recognized as authoritative.
- Process by which certain literary works of ancient Israel were determined to be divinely inspired and ultimately entered into the Hebrew Bible; the process began in the 7th century B.C.E and was concluded by the 2nd century C.E.
- (Lat. one who sings) In Judaism, a
chanter/singer of liturgical materials in the synagogue; also used
similarly in Christian contexts (choir leader, etc.). (See also: hazzan)
- (1883-1951) Bible scholar; Italy and Israel.
- Case law presented in conditional form.
- (Common era)Term often preferred by Jews and Muslims to refer to the period after the year 0, since A.D. (Latin. " anno domini" or year of the Lord) refers to Jesus.
- The practice of refraining from sexual relationships in the interest
of religious purity, known in Judaism among the Essenes and developed
extensively in Christianity.
Center for Jewish Culture, Jaegollonlan University
- Center established at the Jaegollonlan University, in Cracow, on the site of the oldest synagogue
in Poland, to document the history of
the Jews in Poland.
- Central Office for Reich Security (Reichssicherheitshauptamt)
- Headquarters located in Berlin, an administrative office formed in 1939 for the SS and Security Police.
- Immigration certificates allocated by the British Mandate Government
each year under the quota system.
- An acronym for "Chochmah (wisdom), Binah (insight), Da'at (knowledge)", the code for the Labuvitch Chassidut philosophy.
- (Heb/Yid.. Smart) A wise person;
Jewish title given to pre-70 CE proto-rabbinic sages/scholars
and post-70 CE rabbinic scholars.
- (Heb. Lover of Life) Israel Meir ha-Kohen (1838-1933), rabbinic scholar who became best known by the title of this wrote about proper speech (Hilchot Shmirat Ha'lashon); author of Mishneh B'rurah, a commentary on the Orah Hayyim section of the Shulhan Arukh; Lithuania.
- (Heb. holiday)
- (Heb. Happy holiday) Traditional holiday greeting.
- (Heb. Life)
- Braided bread roll traditionally eaten on the Sabbath.
- (1869-1940) British Prime Minister from 1937 to 1940. He concluded the Munich Agreement
in 1938 with Adolf Hitler in the mistaken hope that it would bring
"peace in our time."
- Chamelion Operation
- An unsuccessful cover operation launched by the CIA to arrange a meeting between Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser.
Chametz (chometz, hametz)
- (Heb. Leavened food) Food that is forbidden to be eaten on the holiday of Passover.
Chancellery of the Fuhrer
Hitler’s private office, headed by Reich Leader Philipp Bouhler.
Chanukah/Hanukka(h)("Festival of Lights")
- (Heb. Dedication) Jewish festival that commemorates the rededication of the Jerusalem temple and the victory of the Maccabees over the Hellenists circa 167 BCE.
- A mixture of fruit, wine and nuts eaten at the Passover seder to
symbolize mortar used by the Jewish slaves in Egypt.
- Movement in Judaism founded by the Baal Shem Tov in 1736. It emphasizes Kabbalah and prayer.
- (Heb.) Groom.
- Original woman
- (Heb.) Friend.
- One who is obligated (chiyuv=obligation).
- An acronym for blessed memory of the sages - a reference to authoritative opinion in the Talmud.
- See cantor.
- (Heb/Yid. lit. Room) Traditional school of talmudic study which draws its name from the one-room buildings in which the students studied.
- (Heb. Fat)The fat surrounding organs, as distinguished from the fat surrounding
muscles. Forbidden to be eaten under the laws of kashrut.
- A fictitious town of foolish people told of in Yiddish folklore.
- An extermination camp established in late 1941 in the Warthegau
region of Western Poland, 47 miles west of Lodz. It was the first
camp where mass executions were carried out by means of gas. A total
of 320,000 people were exterminated at Chelmno.
- Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
- This convention prohibited both the use of chemical weapons as stipulated in the 1925 Geneva Protocol as well as their development, production, acquisition, transfer, and stockpiling. The Convention protocols were released on April 29, 1998 and though Israel signed it in 1993 has not ratified it.
- (Heb.) Excommunication.
- (Heb. Accounting of the soul) Self-examination of your actions'
merit, or accounting of your soul's good and bad aspects. (Soul searching)
- (Heb.) Kindness.
- (Heb.) Friends; comrades.
- (Heb. Holy society) The group that prepares a body for burial.
- From the Greek for 1000. Pertaining to the (Christian)
belief that Jesus will reign for a thousand years in the end-times;
also called millenarian (from the Latin).
- (Heb. Desecration of the divine name) Concept that one should not perform a negligible act lest an onlooker associate it with the teachings of Judaism and look down upon God.
- (Heb. Wisdom)
- (Heb. Law). Law from the Torah deemed to be without a
humanly-discernable rationale (e.g. the red heifer).
- (Heb. Ordinary holiday) Semi-festive period that occurs on the festivals of Passover and Sukkot. During this period, one is permitted to perform certain ordinary activities, though a certain level of ritual observance is still maintained.
- According to the Torah, Jews were chosen by God to receive the Torah
and given the special responsibility (or duty) to be A Light
Unto The Nations, thereby, spreading the word of God.
- (Gre. christos, anointed) The Christian
study of the Christ concept in its various associations and applications
(e.g. as historical Jesus, Christ of faith, in his relation to God
and to other humans, in his passion and redemptive work, as royal
or priestly or prophetic figure, as eschatological agent, etc.).
- A yummy, warm concoction eaten on Shabbat.
- (Heb.) The five books of the Torah, bound in one volume (not a scroll).
- (Talmudic Hebrew) Stringencycustom of a community to observe more strictly.
- See huppah.
- (Heb. destruction)
- (1875-1965) British Prime Minister, 1940-1945. He succeeded Chamberlain on May
10, 1940, at the height of Hitler's conquest of Western Europe. Churchill
was one of the very few Western politicians who recognized the threat
that Hitler posed to Europe. He strongly opposed Chamberlain's appeasement
Churchill White Paper
The British Policy statement released on July 1, 1922 that declared land West of the Jordan River to be Jewish but not the whole of the Palestinian Mandate. It also confirmed yet restricted Aliyah to Palestine.
- Outside the land of Israel.
- (Heb/Yid.) Audacity or something outrageous.
- In August 1940 about 1,000 young men from Czestochowa between the
ages of 18 and 25 were sent to the forced labor camp in Cieszanow
(Lublin Province); almost none survived.
- Small community of approximately 3,000
people concentrated in two northern Israeli
villages. They are Sunni Muslims, although
they share neither the Arab origin nor
the cultural background of the larger Islamic
community. While maintaining a distinct
ethnic identity, they participate in Israel's
economic and national affairs without assimilating
either into Jewish society or into the
general Muslim community.
- (Lat. To cut around) Removal of a man's foreskin. In Judaism, it is ritually
performed when a boy is eight days old in a ceremony called a brit
milah,which indicates that the ritual establishes a covenant
between God and the individual. In Islam, it is performed at any time
up to the age of puberty, depending on the cultural tradition (e.g.,
birth, 7 years, puberty, etc.). (See also baptism).
Classical Judaism, Christianity, Islam
- The forms of the religions that have survived as traditional throughout
the centuries. (See also rabbinic, orthodox, and Sunni).
Clauberg, Dr. Carl
- SS Physician infamous for his experiments in sterilizing Jewish
women at Auschwitz, in Barracks 11.
- In Christian contexts, the body of ordained men (and in some churches
women) in a church, permitted to perform the priestly and/or pastoral
duties, as distinct from the laity to whom they minister. In Judaism,
the rabbinate (see rabbi). Islam has no formal clergy in this sense.
- Clinton Plan
- Proposal laid out by the Clinton administration in 2000 after the outbreak of the Second Intifada. Largely based on the Barak proposal of a few months earlier at Camp David, the Clinton Plan offered the Palestinians: a future state with East Jerusalem as its capital, 95% of the West Bank, all of Gaza, reparations to be paid to Palestinian refugees, and joint control of Holy sites in the Old City of Jerusalem. The plan also allowed for Israeli control of its larger settlements (such as Ma'aleh Adumim, Gush Etzion, and Ariel) with modified borders to be agreed upon allowing for equal amounts of land to be allotted to the Palestinians.
- See kohen.
- Israeli spy in Syria during the late 1950's and early 1960's. Posing under the alias "Camile Amin Thabett" he acquired such prominence within the Syrian regime that he was offered a high ranking government position. Later caught while transmitting information back to Israel, he remains considered one of the best spies in history.
- The doctrine which asserts that a group is responsible for the actions
of its individuals, and can therefore be punished for those actions.
- (Heb. Mitzvot) According to rabbinic
Jewish tradition, there are 613 religious commandments referred to
in the Torah (and elaborated upon by the rabbinic sages). Of these,
248 are positive commandments and 365 are negative. The numbers respectively
symbolize the fact that divine service must be expressed through all
one's bodily parts during all the days of the year. In general, a mitzvah refers to any act of religious duty or obligation;
more colloquially, a mitzvah refers to a good deed.
Comite de Defense des Juifs
- (Fre. Jewish Defense Committee) An underground movement
in Belgium established in 1942.
Committee on Jewish Law and Standards (CJLS)
- The Conservative Movement’s deliberative body, administered by the Rabbinical Assembly, that provides guidance on questions of halacha.
- Immediately upon their assumption of power on January 30, 1933,
the Nazis established concentration camps for the imprisonment of
all enemies of their regime: actual and potential political
opponents (e.g., communists, socialists, monarchists), Jehovah's Witnesses,
gypsies, homosexuals, and other asocials. Beginning in
1938, Jews were targeted for internment solely because they were Jews.
Before then, only Jews who fit one of the earlier categories were
interned in camps. The first three concentration camps established
were Dachau (near Munich), Buchenwald (near Weimar) and Sachsenhausen
Concordat of 20 July 1933
- Agreement between the Vatican and German governments which supposedly
guaranteed the Church's rights in Germany. In the agreement Hitler
guaranteed that Catholic institutions and organizations would be protected
under German law. For its' part the Church promised not to meddle
in matters of the German State, etc. Hitler did not fully honor his
agreement and a number of Catholics were persecuted although senior
clerics and the ritual procedures of Catholic practice were, for the
most part, left alone. The agreement enabled Hitler to secure a larger
percentage of the Catholic vote in 1933.
- The Confessing Church was developed from the "Pastors' Emergency
League" an organization founded by Pastor Niemoller, Detrich
Bonhoeffer, and other ministers who opposed the "Deutscher Christen"
manipulation of Christian teaching. Members of the Confessing Church
were initially concerned with the German Christian movement's efforts
to aryanize Christian teaching. They opposed efforts by the German
Christians to eliminate the Old Testament, block non-aryans from joining
the Church Community, etc. Eventually, the Confessing Church (many
of its members) publicly opposed the regime's political and racial
policies. Many lost their lives as a result of their opposition.
- A ceremony found in both the Christian religion and in some branches
of the Jewish religion. A sacrament of the Catholic Church, it marks
the admission of the person to full membership in the church (takes
place between ages 7-14). A rite of passage in Judaism, confirmation
usually marks the end of formal religious school training (age 15-16),
and often occurs around the time of Shavuot. Confirmation in Judaism
was invented in the 19th century by the Reform movement as a replacement
for the Bar Mitzvah.
- A modern development in Judaism, reacting to early Jewish Reform
movements in an attempt to retain clearer links to classical Jewish
law while at the same time adapting it to modern situations. Its
scholarly center in the U.S. is the Jewish Theological Seminary
in New York.
- Signed by Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, and the Ottoman Empire on October 29, 1888, the convention demanded free access for all interested parties to the Suez Canal. Egypt recognized the convention, however, blockaded it against Israel before and after it nationalized it in 1956.
- A musical technique that places new lyrics into melodies of old
songs. This technique was used during the Holocaust, when lyrics
were being written faster than composers could generate the music.
- (Lat. To turn around). In general religious
usage, the act of changing allegiance from one group to another.
- A pact between two parties. The major covenants in Jewish scriptures
are God's covenant with Abraham (Genesis 15), and the Sinai/Moses
covenant (Exodus 19-24) between God and Israel. In Judaism, the
covenant (Heb. "brit") is a major theological concept referring
to the eternal bond between God and the people of Israel grounded
in God's gracious and steadfast concern (hesed) that calls
for the nation's obedience to the divine commandments (mitzvot)
and instruction (torah). Christians believe that God made a new covenant (rendered as new testament
in older English) with the followers of Jesus in the last
times, superseding the old covenant (thus, old
testament) with Moses at Sinai.
- City in southern Poland, one of the most important for Jews from
the 14th century. In 1495, Kazimierz was created, later becoming
a part of Cracow. In 1939, 60,000 Jews lived in Cracow in 1939,
but only about 4,000 survived the Holocaust.
- A general term (from Latin) for belief declarations
or summaries such as the Christian apostles' or Nicene creeds, or
in Judaism the shema affirmation, or in Islam the shahada
- A building which housed ovens used for burning bodies in extermination camps during the Holocaust.
- Decorative ornament traditionally placed atop a Torah scroll as a sign of respect and grandeur.
- In 1092 Pope Urban II called on Christians everywhere to recover the
Holy Land and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher from Muslim rule. Mobs of enthusiastic
peasants called the Crusaders moved towards the Land
of Israel, destroying Jewish communities on their way. In 1099 they
seized Jerusalem and massacred most of its non-Christian population.
- A general
term for formal aspects and interrelationships of religious observance,
often as focused on a particular phenomenon (e.g., the temple
cult, the cult of saints).
- Style of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia, mostly on clay tablets and seals; the usual means by which Akkadian was written.
- Crystalline hydrogen cyanide used in gas chambers during the Holocaust.
- British-occupied island in the Mediterranean that served as a
detention center for Jews attempting to enter the British Mandate of Palestine illegally.
- Egypt’s arm deal with Czechoslovakia in 1955 that initiated the involvement of the Soviet Union in Middle Eastern politics as well as its pro-Arab stance. This marked the largest military transaction in the world during its time. The ensuing Israeli anxiety and desire to topple Nasser before he could a military threat led to the Suez War.
- (1880-1942) Head of the Warsaw Judenrat. He committed suicide on July 23,
1942, to protest the killing of Jewish children. His diary consisted
of 1,009 pages in 8 notebooks, from Sept. 6,1939, until the day
of his death.
- Established on April 9, 1941, it was sealed off on August 23,
1941. The ghetto population suffered from overcrowding, hunger and
epidemics. On September 23, 1942 a large scale deportation (Aktion)
began. By October 5, 1942, about 39,000 people had been deported
to Treblinka extermination camp, while 2,000 had been executed on