Phoebe Yates Levy Pember
(1823 - 1913)
Born on August 18, 1823, Phoebe Yates Levy grew up as the fourth of
six daughters of a prosperous and cultured Jewish family in Charleston, South Carolina.
Immediately after the outbreak of the Civil War, Phoebe's
husband, Thomas Pember, died of tuberculosis. Moving form South
Carolina to the Confederate capitol of Richmond, Virginia,
Phoebe received an offer to serve as matron of the Chimborazo Military
Hospital from Mrs. George W. Randolph, wife of the Confederate Secretary
of War. Phoebe reported for duty in December 1862. The
Chimborazo Hospital was reputed to be the largest military hospital
in the world at that time. A sprawling institution located on the western
boundary of Richmond, Chimborazo began receiving patients in 1862 and
was eventually expanded to 150 wards. Each ward was a separate one story
building thirty feet wide and one hundred feet long housing approximately
forty to sixty patients. Only one surgeon was assigned to each division.
A total of 76,000 patients had been treated at Chiborazo by the end
of the Civil War.
The pain, suffering and death at Chimborazo from battlefield
casualties was greatly compounded by severe shortages of personnel,
medicine, food, and equipment. Primitive facilities, unsanitary conditions,
and undeveloped scientific knowledge of medical treatments added to
the tragedy and pathos.
Operating in this atmosphere of misery and despair,
Phoebe Yates Pember dedicated herself to doing everything possible to
relieve the suffering of the soldiers, administering medication, assisting
surgeons in operations (frequently without anesthetic), patching wounds
and caring for patients. Often, Phoebe simply served as a final companion
to the dying - writing letters, reading stories, playing cards, holding
hands, praying, talking.
At the conclusion of the war, Phobe Yates Pember wrote
her memoirs of the hardships of life in Confederate Richmond, including
her experiences as matron of Chimborazo Hospital. First published in
1879, A Southern Woman's Story is rated by Civil War historian
Douglas Southall Freeman as "the most realistic treatment of the
war" ever published. A Southern Woman's Story also became
a landmark work in women's history through Phoebe Pember's vivid descriptions
of the difficulties encountered by one of the first women to enter the
previously all male domain of nursing.
Sources: Courtesy of the Jewish
Women's Archives and Jewish