(1884 - 1963)
Yitzhak Ben-Zvi was born in Poltava, Ukraine in 1884. During
the 1905 pogrom, he became active in Jewish selfdefense
and played a leading role in Po'alei Zion, a Zionist socialist
Ben-Zvi settled in Palestine at the beginning of 1907 and
was a Po'alei Zion delegate to the Eighth Zionist Congress held
that year in The Hague.
Along with Rahel Yanait, whom he later married, BenZvi participated
in the founding of the Ha-Shomer Jewish defense organization.
In 1910, Ben-Zvi together with Rahel Yanait, and Ze'ev Ashur
founded the first Hebrew socialist periodical "Ahdut"
(Unity) in the country.
Subsequently deported along with David
they founded the He-Halutz (Pioneer) movement of America
to prepare young Jews for settlement in Palestine, and established
branches in many cities.
They returned to Palestine in 1918 as soldiers of the Jewish Legion
in the British Royal Fusiliers. During the Arab riots in Jerusalem in the 1920's, Ben-Zvi was active in the ranks of the Haganah (voluntary Jewish self-defense organization).
With the establishment of the Va'ad Le'ummi (National Committee)
in 1920, Ben-Zvi was elected to its leadership, first as
a member, later as chairman (1931), and finally as president in
After the establishment of the State of Israel, Ben-Zvi was
elected as a "Mapai" (Labor) member to the first and
second Knesset, in 1949 and 1952.
Upon the passing of Chaim Weizmann, Ben-Zvi
was elected President
of the State in 1952, and in 1957 was returned by the Knesset to that office for five more years. In 1962 he was elected president
for a third term and died in office on April 23, 1963.
Ben-Zvi headed the Institute for the Study of Oriental Jewish
Communities in the Middle East, which he founded in 1948, later
named the Ben-Zvi Institute. His scholarly works were devoted
mainly to research on communities and sects (Samaritans, Karaites,
Jewish communities in Asia and Africa, etc.) and to the geography
of the land of Israel, its ancient populations, antiquities and