Hideki Tojo was a Japanese general and the 40th Prime
Minister of Japan (October 18, 1941-July 22, 1944). Tojo was a member
of the military clique that pushed Japan into war in the late 1930s. As War Minister in 1940 he was instrumental in leading Japan into the Axis Alliance with Nazi Germany and Italy.
Among his decisions was the approval of government-sanctioned biological
experiments on POWs.
Tojo was premier and in command of the entire Japanese military, which
so dominated Japan at the time that he was virtually the nation's dictator.
He resigned in 1944 following a series of military disasters. After the war, he shot himself
in the chest in an unsuccessful suicide attempt.
He then was tried by the International Military Tribunal
for the Far East for war
crimes. He was found guilty of count 1 (waging wars of aggression,
and war or wars in violation of international law), count 27 (waging
unprovoked war against China), count 29 (waging aggressive war against
the United States), count 31 (waging aggressive war against the British
Commonwealth), count 32 (waging aggressive war against the Netherlands),
count 33 (waging aggressive war against France (Indochina)), and count
54 (ordering, authorizing, and permitting inhumane treatment of Prisoners
of War (POWs) and others). He was sentenced to death on November 12,
1948, and executed by hanging.
Because of the crimes committed under his authority,
Tojo is considered responsible for the murder of almost four million