Marvin Julian Miller was the executive director of the Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA) from 1966 to 1982. Under Miller's leadership, the players' union was transformed into one of the strongest unions in the United States. In 1968, Miller negotiated the MLBPA's first collective bargaining agreement with the team owners. That agreement increased the minimum salary $4,000 to $10,000, the first increase in two decades. As an economist, Miller understood that too many free agents could actually drive down player salaries. Miller agreed to restricting free agency to players with more than six years of service, knowing that restricting the supply of labor would drive up salaries as owners bid for the few free agents. Miller fell short of selection to the Baseball Hall of Fame in both 2003 and 2007, although he finished among the leading candidates in voting for executives.