(1900 - 1945?)
by Timothy Naftali, Norman J.W. Goda, Richard Breitman & Robert Wolfe
Heinrich Mueller was the last chief of the
and a major Nazi war criminal. His fate after World War II - unknown for decades despite multiple investigations - was confirmed in October 2013 when evidence surfaced that he had been buried in a mass grave in Berlin, alongside Jewish victims, in 1945.
- Mueller & the Nazi Regime
- The End of the War
- First Search for Gestapo Mueller
- West German Investigation
- CIA Investigation
- Integrity of the CIA File
- Confirming Mueller's Death & Burial
Mueller and the Nazi Regime
Mueller was born in Munich on April 28, 1900. After
serving as a pilot in World War I, he joined the police in Munich, soon
acquiring a reputation as a skilled anti-communist investigator who
did not feel bound by legal norms of police investigation. As such,
he would draw the attention of Heinrich
Himmler and Reinhard
Heydrich, leaders of Hitler's SS.
Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933,
Himmler and Heydrich consolidated German regional police units while
creating a national political police, the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo).
Mueller entered the SS in 1934 and quickly
rose through the ranks of that organization as a police official. In
when the Gestapo and other
police organizations were consolidated into the Reich Main Security
Office (RSHA), Mueller was made the Chief of RSHA Amt IV -- the Gestapo.
As Gestapo chief, Mueller oversaw the implementation of Hitler's policies against
Jews and other groups deemed a threat to the state. The notorious Adolf
Eichmann, who headed the Gestapo's
Office of Resettlement and then its Office of Jewish Affairs, was Mueller's
immediate subordinate. Once World
War II began, Mueller and Eichmann planned key components in the
deportation and then extermination of Europe's Jews.
Mueller was involved in other criminal affairs as well.
He helped plan the phony Polish attack on Gleiwitz radio station in 1939 (used to
justify Germany's attack on Poland).
He signed the "Bullet
Order" of March 1944 (authorizing the shooting of escaped prisoners of war) and authorized
the torture of officers who had conspired to kill Hitler in July 1944.
Mueller's zeal in countering the 20
July plot earned him the rare military decoration of the Knight's
Cross to the War Service Cross with Swords in October 1944.
Mueller also managed security and counterespionage
operations. His most spectacular counterespionage success was the development
of a double-cross network that fed disinformation to the Soviet intelligence
services between 1942 and 1945. Located
in Berlin and a few other Western
European capitals, this network had been extremely successful in sending
sensitive political and military information to Moscow. Mueller's Gestapo team was able to capture a number of these agents and "turn"
them. Codenamed Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra), this Gestapo operation was among the greatest Soviet intelligence setbacks of the
The End of the War
In the war's final year, it seems that Heinrich Mueller
stubbornly believed in a Nazi victory. He told one of his top counterespionage
case officers in December 1944 that the Ardennes offensive (known in the U.S. as the Battle
of the Bulge) would result in the recapture of Paris.1 Mueller also reportedly redoubled efforts to drive a wedge between the
Soviets and the Western allies by using his double agents.
Not everyone was convinced of his sincerity. There
were rumors among German intelligence officers that Mueller had himself
been turned by the Soviets. Walter
Schellenberg, chief of the RSHA's Foreign Intelligence Branch (Amt
VI) and a bitter rival of Mueller, was the source of some of this speculation.
When interrogated by OSS in 1945,
Schellenberg claimed that Mueller had been in friendly radio contact
with the Soviets, and Schellenberg's postwar memoirs contain verbatim
exhortations from 1943 by Mueller on Stalin's superiority to Hitler as a leader.2 Gestapo-men
close to Mueller considered such rumors unfounded and illogical. Mueller's
immediate superior Ernst
Kaltenbrunner (Chief of the RSHA), later insisted under Allied interrogation
that Mueller could never have embraced the Soviets. Similarly, Heinz
Pannwitz, Mueller's Gestapo subordinate who ran Rote Kapelle, categorized the notion that Mueller
had turned as "absolutely absurd" in a 1959 CIA interrogation.3
The First Search for Gestapo
Months before the fall of Berlin,
Anglo-American counterespionage officers began their postwar planning.
Under the combined leadership of British MI 5 and MI 6 and the X-2 (counterespionage)
branch of the American Office of Strategic Services, the SHAEF G-2 Counter
Intelligence (CI) War Room began operating in February 1945. Using Allied
lists of Nazi intelligence officers, the War Room supervised the hunt
for the remnants of Germany's military and police intelligence services.
Initially, the chief concern of the officers of the CI War Room was
that Nazi intelligence units would survive the war and, financed with
looted assets, launch paramilitary operations in the Bavarian Alps.
Intelligence reaching the War Room in the last months of the war did
not mention Mueller as a possible leader of postwar Nazi operations,
but given his command of the Gestapo,
Mueller remained an important man to capture.
On May 27, 1945 the Counter Intelligence War Room issued
a statement about its priority targets for interrogations in what it
called the German intelligence service. At the top of the list were
Nazi intelligence officials involved in foreign intelligence (RSHA Amt
VI). Next in priority were security police and SD units in occupied
countries. Gestapo officials came farther down the target list. A War
Room instruction to interrogators of captured RSHA officers listed the
top missing persons: interrogators were to ask: "Where are: SCHELLENBERG,
OHLENDORF, MUELLER, STEIMLE, SANDBERGER?"4 (All but
Mueller were subsequently located and interrogated.) A War Room fortnightly
report covering the period ending June 18, 1945 stated that no leading
officials of the Gestapo had yet been arrested, and "it seems clear
from most reports that Mueller remained in Berlin after the collapse."5 His fate was contrasted with that of other Gestapo personalities who
fled south. A separate OSS X-2 (counterintelligence) report at the end
of the month repeated that no highranking Gestapo officials had yet
been captured and that Mueller had remained in Berlin.6
A War Room monthly summary in late July 1945 reported
that Amt VI officials had largely surrendered, while most Amt IV (Gestapo)
officials remained at large. Mueller's fate was still unknown: "Some
of our evidence, though it is by no means conclusive, suggests that
Mueller himself may have remained in Berlin until the last [while]
the greater part of Amt IV collected itself at Hof, near Munich, and
at Salzburg and Innsbruck.7 A War Room intelligence arrest
target list, dated August 21, commented about 'H. Mueller, head of the Gestapo': "Last reported Berlin, Apr. 1945."8 A
later revision to the arrest target list reported the arrest of several Gestapo officials, including Walter Huppenkothen who was part of the
Red Orchestra team. But not Heinrich Mueller.9
Ultimately the Allies would find many Heinrich Muellers
in occupied Germany and Austria, but not the right one. Heinrich Mueller
is a very common German name. By the end of 1945, American and British
occupation forces had gathered information on numerous Heinrich Muellers,
all of whom had different birth dates, physical characteristics and
job histories. Documentation on some of them is included-one might say
mistakenly jumbled together-in the "Gestapo" Mueller Army
IRR file, which the National Archives released in 2000. Part of the
problem for U.S. record-keepers stemmed from the fact that some of these
Muellers, including Gestapo Mueller, did not appear to have middle names.
An additional source of confusion was that there were two different
Gestapo-Generals named Heinrich Mueller. In at least one instance, an
index card purporting to collate information on Gestapo Mueller, which
was prepared by an American official after the war, actually contains
two different birth dates, as well as data about a third man of the
same name. A Heinrich Mueller was held briefly at the Altenstadt civilian
internment camp in 1945.10 Another killed himself along with
his wife and his children in April 1946.11
Throughout this period the Counter Intelligence War
Room functioned as the ULTRA/top secret collecting point for information
about the locations of the Allies' top intelligence targets. Although
the occupation forces had encountered quite a few men named Heinrich
Mueller, the War Room's verdict was unambiguous: Gestapo Muller had
not been found.
In the initial period after the Nazi surrender U.S.
counterintelligence attempted to track down all leads to Mueller. Information
reached U.S. army intelligence that Gestapo Mueller had taken the assumed
name Schwartz or Schwatzer and had gone south from Berlin with another Gestapo official Christian A. Scholz. But no traces of either man were
ever found.12 In 1947, British and American authorities twice
searched the home of Gestapo Mueller's mistress Anna Schmid for clues,
but found nothing suggesting that Mueller was still alive. With the
onset of the Cold War and the shift of resources to the Soviet target,
the assumption took hold in U.S. intelligence that Gestapo Mueller was
The West German Investigation
The dramatic Israeli
abduction of Mueller's subordinate Adolf
Eichmann from Argentina in May 1960 created new interest in Nazi
war criminals and particularly in Mueller. Imaginative theories that
Mueller (along with Eichmann) had escaped Berlin and were still alive
had been in the press for some time, as well as in the best selling
memoir by Wilhelm Hoettl, himself a former Gestapo officer.14 Eichmann himself helped to fan speculation about
in Mueller, when during his Jerusalem trial, he voiced his belief that
Mueller survived the war. Already in July 1960, the West German office
in charge of the prosecution of war criminals [Zentralle Stelle der
Landesjustizverwaltungen] charged local police authorities in Bavaria
(Mueller's family still lived in Munich) and Berlin to investigate.
The West Germans were skeptical that Mueller was working for the Soviets,
but did think it possible that Mueller was corresponding from somewhere
with his family or possibly with his former secretary Barbara Hellmuth.
All of these West German citizens were closely watched, and in May 1961
the Bavarian police asked the U.S. occupation forces to put Mueller's
relatives and Hellmuth under surveillance. West German police also searched
the Berlin home of Anna Schmid, Mueller's former mistress, and spoke
with her. Schmid told the West German investigators that she had not
seen Mueller since 24 April 1945, when he gave her a vial of poison
and then disappeared. Her own efforts to find him in the subsequent
days and weeks had been fruitless.15
According to various witnesses interviewed by the West
German police in 1961, the last time Mueller was seen alive was the
evening of May 1, 1945, the day after Hitler's suicide. Several eyewitnesses
placed Mueller at Hitler's Chancellery building that evening while recounting
his refusal to leave with the breakout group that night. Hans Baur,
Hitler's pilot and an old friend of Mueller's, recounts Mueller as saying,
"We know the Russian methods exactly. I haven't the faintest intention
being taken prisoner by the Russians." Another claimed
that Mueller refused to leave with the rest of Hitler's entourage, and
was overheard saying "the regime has fallen and
I fall also."
He was last seen in the company of his radio specialist Christian A.
Scholz. And while the bodies of others that remained that night were
recovered and identified, no one in the final group witnessed the death
of Mueller or Scholz.16
West German authorities pursued three major leads in
an effort to confirm Mueller's death and burial in Berlin in 1945. First,
there was the testimony of Fritz Leopold, a Berlin morgue official who
had reported in December 1945 that Mueller's body was moved (along with
many others) from the RSHA headquarters at Prinz Albrecht Strasse (2000
feet from the Chancellery) for reburial in a local municipal cemetery
on Lilienthalstrasse (Berlin-Neukoelln) in the Western half of the city.
Leopold was later deemed an unreliable source, but the burial was officially
registered with the Berlin authorities and a headstone would be placed
at Mueller's "grave" which read, "Our loving father Heinrich
Mueller - Born 28 April 1900 - Died in Berlin May 1945." A second
story came from Mueller's ex-subordinate Heinz Pannwitz, who had been
captured by the Soviets and returned to West Germany in 1957, whereupon
he told the German Secret Service [Bundesnachrichtendienst - BND] that
his Soviet interrogators revealed to him that "your Chief [Mueller]
is dead." The body, they said, had been found in a subway shaft
a few blocks from the Chancellery with a bullet through the head and
with its identity documents intact.17
The final story came from Walter Lueders, a former
member of the German Volkssturm (civilian fighters) who maintained that
he had headed a burial detail in the summer of 1945. Of the hundreds
of bodies buried by the detail, only one, said Lueders, wore an Gestapo-General's
uniform, and it was found in the garden of the Reich Chancellery with
a large wound in the back. Though the body had no medals or decorations,
Lueders recalled with certainty that the identity papers were those
of Gestapo Mueller. It was moved to the old Jewish Cemetery on Grosse
Hamburgerstasse in the Soviet Sector, where it was placed in one of
three mass graves. In fact, in 1955 the German Armed Forces Information
Office (Wehrmachtsauskunftsstelle - WASt) inquired with district authorities
in East Berlin and received confirmation that Gestapo Mueller was buried
at the Grosse-Hamburgerstrasse cemetery in 1945. Since the grave was
a mass grave, however, there was no actual plot.
The Fritz Leopold story was checked first, and in September
1963, the Mueller "grave" at the Lilienthalstrasse cemetery
in West Berlin was exhumed. Investigation revealed that in fact, the
grave contained the remains of three different people, none of whom
were Mueller. The skull, moreover, belonged to a man ten years younger
than Mueller would have been in 1945. The German authorities had no
means by which to verify either Pannwitz's or Lueders' story. Pannwitz's
information had come from Moscow, and there was no official liaison
between Soviet intelligence and the West Germans on the Mueller case.
Lueders's story could not be checked since Grosse Hamburgerstrasse was
on the other side of the two-year old Berlin Wall. Adding to the confusion
was the mystery of Mueller's effects. WASt, according to its own records,
returned to Mueller's family in 1958 not only the Gestapo Chief's papers,
some of which Lueders claimed to have found on the body, but also Mueller's
decorations, which neither Leopold not Lueders claimed to have found.
These items were never checked for authenticity.18
The CIA investigation
The CIA started its involvement in the hunt for Mueller
at roughly the same time as the German search, albeit from a different
source base. The January 1961 defection and interrogation of a Polish
intelligence officer brought Western counterintelligence tips that led
to several Soviet and Polish agents active in the West, including George
Blake, a mole in the British MI6, Harry Houghton, a clerk in the British
navy, and Heinz Felfe, a highlevel West German intelligence officer.
The defector surely was Lt. Col. Michal Goleniewski [TN], the Deputy
Chief of Polish Military Counter Intelligence until 1958, who had also
operated as a mole for the KGB in the Polish service. In recounting
his work as an interrogator of captured German officials in Poland from
1948 to 1952, Goleniewski revealed information about the fate of some
Nazi intelligence officials, including Gestapo Mueller. Goleniewski
had not actually met Mueller. However, he had heard from his Soviet
supervisors that sometime between 1950 and 1952 the Soviets had picked
up Mueller and taken him to Moscow.19 There was little with
which to evaluate this claim, and some reason to be skeptical of this
hearsay. Pannwitz, after all, had recently dismissed as "nonsense"
to CIA interrogators the idea that Mueller worked for the Soviets while
claiming that his own Soviet interrogators repeatedly said that Mueller
The CIA tried to track down the men Goleniewski named
as having worked with Mueller in Moscow. The CIA determined that Jakob
Loellgen, the former Gestapo chief of Danzig, was alive and
resided in West Germany. In 1945 the Soviets had captured Loellgen but
then released him, whereupon he returned to West Germany, working as
a local police chief and as a private investigator. The CIA turned this
information over to the Germans and the BND located Loellgen in 1961.
The Germans dropped the ball. Although the BDN apparently
began assembling material for his arrest, Loellgen was never arrested.
The CIA never quite figured out what had happened. The BND seemed to
be preoccupied throughout 1961 with another of Goleniewski's leads,
Heinz Felfe. Felfe was a highlevel BND officer, who had already provided
thousands of West German secrets including names of agents, cover names,
addresses, and documents, to Moscow. In the midst of the Felfe scandal,
West German investigation of Loellgen just fell between the cracks.21
The CIA did collect some information on its own that
bore on the "Mueller in Moscow" thesis. In June 1961, another
source was asked to assess Goleniewski's information on Soviet contacts
with former Nazis. The source, who appears to have been a KGB officer,
reported having read a "Mueller file," in which Mueller is
described as having been captured by Soviet intelligence at the end
of World War II. The identity of this source is not given in the CIA
file, but is likely Petr Deriabin [TN]. (Deriabin had worked on counterintelligence
matters in the Austro-German department of the First Chief Directorate
of the KGB.) The defector wrote in a 1971 memorandum for the record
that in 1952 he had heard from his own superiors that Moscow had recruited
Mueller and that he himself had read excerpts from an interrogation.
He even included the names of four Soviet officers who had once debriefed
Mueller in 1951.22
Despite the partial corroboration of the information
from Goleniewski, the CIA appears to have relied on the West Germans
to take the lead in the investigation of Mueller's whereabouts and did
little follow-up in the 1960s. The remainder of the decade saw various
news reports that Mueller had escaped to various points in the West
(Argentina, Cuba), as well as tragicomic episodes. In 1967, a false
sighting of Mueller in Panama led to the arrest there of one Francis
Keith, who was released once fingerprints revealed he was not Mueller.
Later the same year, two Israeli operatives were caught by West German
police in an attempted break-in at the Munich apartment of Mueller's
wife. Reams of newspaper copy were produced by such episodes, but there
was only limited CIA interest.
Yet one particular report did catch CIA's attention.
In the aftermath of the Eichmann trial, the West German weekly Stern
ran two articles by the journalist Peter Staehle that appeared in January
and August 1964. Staehle said that after having followed a path after
the war that included the Soviet Union, Romania, Turkey, and South Africa,
Mueller became a senior police official in Albania before fleeing for
South America.23 From the very start, CIA suspected that
Staehle's articles were a "plant" - part of a "clever
bit of [disinformation] work" to mislead the public, as well as
intelligence agencies.24 The CIA checked - and disproved
Staehle's claim that Mueller was in fact an Albanian police official
named Abedin Bekir Nakoschiri.25 The BND and CIA also discovered
that Staehle had failed to get his articles printed in the more respected
weekly Die Zeit thanks to a suspect source base about which Staehle
had reportedly lied.26
In May 1970 a Czech defector, very likely Ladislas
Bittman [TN], a disinformation specialist himself, weighed in.27 Bittman said that the Stern article was planted from Prague in order
to neutralize rumors that Mueller might in fact be in Czechoslovakia.
Bittman added for good measure that within Czech intelligence circles,
it was common knowledge that the KGB had used Nazi war criminals for
intelligence purposes and that key sections of Nazi archives had also
been captured by the Soviets for use in "operational aims."28
These comments caught the eye of the CIA's Counter-Intelligence
(CI) Staff, headed by the legendary James Angleton. If Mueller really
had been in the USSR or elsewhere in Eastern Europe, and if he had taken
RSHA central files with him (many of which had indeed vanished after
the war), then numerous leading West Germans (presumably on the political
right) could still be compromised. It was crucial to discover what had
happened, not necessarily to Mueller, who well might have been dead
in any case, but to the files. Angleton also had a special interest
in Soviet disinformation. The CI Staff undertook a through-going inquiry
of Mueller starting in late 1970, and it is likely that this inquiry
resulted in Mueller's name file (along with the above-mentioned material
on the West German search) being assembled by CIA at all. It certainly
resulted in a forty-page Counter Intelligence Brief - "The Hunt
for 'Gestapo' Mueller" - which was circulated as an internal report
of the Directorate of Plans in December 1971. A memo in the file dated
9 December 1971 explaining the purpose of the report states that:
Our principal original objective in preparing the attached
study of the MUELLER case was to produce a training aid illustrating
the vagaries and pitfalls of protracted investigations. In the past,
MUELLER had been viewed mainly as a missing war criminal. As the material
was collected, however, we became aware of another important possibility:
that MUELLER had defected to World War II Soviet counterintelligence
(SMERSH) and had taken with him a large assortment of files. (The
central files of the German National Security Service (RSHA), of which
Mueller was de facto chief
in the last weeks of the war, were
never recovered by the Western Allies
.) If SMERSH actually seized
MUELLER and the best part of the RSHA records, Soviet capabilities
to control important Germans and some other Europeans would far exceed
those heretofore attributed to them."29
In the process of putting together the report, the
CI staff undertook some new inquiries of its own. A re-reading of a
1963 article in the German weekly Der Spiegel, which discussed
the exhumation of Mueller's West Berlin "grave" that year,
revealed that a mysterious woman in Berlin unrelated to Mueller had
purchased the headstone. 30 Perhaps this purchase too was
part of a disinformation campaign designed to hide the fact that Mueller
was used by the Soviets after the war.31 In December 1970
the West Germans allowed CIA to examine the exhumation records for the
identity of the mysterious woman who had purchased the Mueller tombstone,
albeit with no results. CI also hoped that the West German government
would locate and interview Walter Lueders (who had found the body buried
in the Grosse-Hamburgerstrasse cemetery) and verify, if they could,
the authenticity of the personal effects returned to Mueller's family
in 1957.32 German memoirs from the 1950s with cryptic clues
on Mueller were reread.33 CI also asked Soviet defector Peter
Deriabin to write a memorandum for the file in November 1971.
The CI team found fault with how Goleniewski's leads
had been handled in 1961 and wanted to return to that trail. Loellgen,
wrote one CI investigator, "must have an interesting tale to tell
about what happened to Heinrich Mueller and how the [Soviet] operation
to penetrate the Nazi stay-behind operation fared"34 "How do we get Loellgen to talk?" asked another. "Have
we [an] interviewer that might 'accidentally' look [him] up?" But
reasons for skepticism remained. "It seems to me," the same
agent said, "that [Soviet intelligence] would never have let LOELLGEN
go back to the West if in fact they had MUELLER. The scandal of sheltering
this number one war criminal would have been too risky."35 In any event, Loellgen was not questioned.
The 40-page CI report ended on a note of skepticism.
"No one appears to have tried very hard," it said,
to find MUELLER immediately after the war while the trail
was still hot, either in the West or the East
is that Allied officials searching for MUELLER soon stumbled over
holdings of his effects and the
burial record and considered
these sufficient proof that he was dead
.There is little room
for doubt, however, that the Soviet and Czech services circulated
rumors to the effect that MUELLER had escaped to the West. These rumor
were apparently floated to offset the charges that the Soviets had
sheltered the criminal
.There are strong indications but no proof
that MUELLER collaborated with [the Soviets]. There are also strong
indications but no proof that MUELLER died [in Berlin]
appears certain. MUELLER and SCHOLZ had some special reason for entering
the Berlin death trap and remaining behind in the Chancellery. If
their object was to carry out a memorable and convincing suicide,
they really bungled the job.
The CI Staff requested a deeper CIA investigation to
find proof that would confirm or disprove these competing theories.
Yet it appears that the CI Staff's request for a full-fledged investigation
of the Mueller matter was not accepted.36 The Mueller file
itself ends in December 1971 with the circulation of the CI Staff report.
The Integrity of the CIA File
The heart of the file comprises documentary support
for all the key judgments in the 1971 CI Staff report "The Hunt
for Gestapo Mueller." Whatever confidence one can have in the integrity
of the file's declassified contents thus hinges on judgments regarding
the CI Staff's objectives in assembling and writing its report. In 1971
the United States was not being accused of having harbored Gestapo Mueller.
Instead it seems that the CI Staff was prompted to investigate the Mueller
case both as a possible example of Soviet deception and as a check on
the reliability of key CIA defectors and West German informants. If
the CIA had evidence that Mueller had been contacted by the West and
not the Soviets, then the CI Staff's handling of theses defector cases
that most likely involved Bittman, Deriabin, and Goleniewski makes no
sense. In the 1960s and early 1970s, the CIA was riddled with doubt
over the reliability of its stable of Soviet defectors. There were fears
that Moscow had sent agents to the West to mislead the Allies about
Soviet capabilities and intentions. It was in the interest of the CI
Staff in particular and the CIA in general to determine whether high
profile defectors like Bittman, Deriabin and Goleniewski were telling
the truth about Mueller. Moreover, in assembling materials for its report,
the CI Staff had no reason to believe that these documents would eventually
be declassified. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that the CI Staff
report, and by extension the CIA Mueller name file, represents a compilation
of the best information on Gestapo Mueller available to CIA at that
More information about Mueller's fate might still emerge
from still secret files of the former Soviet Union. The CIA file, by
itself, does not permit definitive conclusions. Taking into account
the currently available records of the War Room as well as other documents
in the National Archives, the authors of this report conclude that Mueller
most likely died in Berlin in early May 1945.
Confirming Gestapo Mueller's Death & Burial
In October 2013, research conducted by Johannes Tuchel, head of the Berlin-based Memorial for German Resistance, and Andreas Nachama, head of the Topography of Terror archive and memorial located at the site of the former Gestapo headquarters in Berlin, confirmed that Gestapo Mueller was buried with about 2,400 others, many unidentified, in a mass grave in the Jewish cemetery in Berlin’s Mitte section.
Nachama said that evidence of Mueller’s having been buried at the Jewish cemetery was uncovered in the late 1990's but not confirmed. His name appeared on a list in the Jewish community archive of bodies and body parts buried in an anti-tank trench dug in the cemetery but now written evidence has been found - the report from a burial commando about the discovery and identification of Mueller’s body in August 1945. Mueller’s military photo ID was still in his uniform pocket.
Sources: NARA; JTA (October 31, 2013); Photo courtesy of Spartacus
- Excerpts from interrogation of Heinz Pannwitz,
cited in CIA, Directorate of Plans, "The Hunt for 'Gestapo
Mueller,'" a Counterintelligence Brief issued in December 1971,
CIA Name File, Heinrich Mueller, (hereafter Mueller File), vol.
2. The origins of this brief are explained below.
- Walter Schellenberg, The Labyrinth, trans.
Louis Hagen (New York: Harper Brothers, 1956 ), pp. 319-20.
Excerpts from the debriefing are in memo 201-742896 of 10 February
1965, Mueller file, vol. 1.
- For Kaltenbrunner's interrogation, see
the excerpts in memo 201-742896 of 10 February 1965, Mueller file,
vol. 1. On Pannwitz, see [CIA/EUR] to Chief, EE and Chief SR, [A]-44835,
24 September 1959, Mueller file, vol. 1. Pannwitz's name is redacted
in this document but it is clear who he is from other evidence in
- War Room Publication, G. I. S. Priorities
for Interrogation, 27 May 1945, NA RG 226, Entry 119A, Box 22, Folder
621. War Room Publication, Tactical Interrogation of Members of
the RSHA, 21 May 1945, NA RG 226, E119A, B 22, F 621.
- W. R. C.3 Fortnightly Report for the period
ending 18th June, 1945, NA RG 226, E 119A, B 25, F 639.
- Progress Report, X-2 Branch, 1 June-30 June
1945, attached to Saint (London) to Saint, Stockholm, 13 July 1945,
NA RG 226, Entry 125A, B 7, F 76.
- War Room Monthly Summary No. 4, 23 July
1945, NA RG 226, E 119A, B 24, F 629.
- NA RG 226, Entry 119A, B 22, F 621.
- Arrest Target List-Revision Note, 1 November
1945, NA RG 226, E 122, B 1, tab 6.
- Two consecutive index cards, probably prepared
in 1946, are reproduced in Gestapo Mueller's IRR File and give two
birth dates: the correct date and 7 June 1896. Card #2 includes
the misinformation that Heinrich Mueller was being detained at Civilian
Internment Enclosure #10, Altenstadt. It is quite possible that
a Heinrich Mueller was there, but neither of those two whose birth
dates were listed. U.S. Army did not list any further dealings with
the Altenstadt Mueller. NA RG 319, IRR File Mueller, File XE 23
- See note by the Intelligence Bureau, C.C.
G. (British Element), Bad Oeynhausen to G-2 (CI), USFET, 23 May
1946. There is also a reference to this information in "Subject:
Mueller, Heinrich,"5 May 1961, the same U.S. Army consolidated
report that lists Mueller as having been in Altenstadt in December
1945. NA RG 319, IRR File Mueller, XE 23 55 39. This report was
easily dismissed because Gestapo Mueller's wife and children were
- See Cards photocopied in the U.S. Army's
Mueller File. NA RG 319, IRR File Mueller, XE 23 55 39.
- See "The Hunt for 'Gestapo Mueller,'"
- The 1950 book, Die geheime Front: Organisation,
Personen und Aktionen der deutschen Geheimdienstes was published
under the pseudonym Walter Hagen and translated into numerous languages
including English. It argued that Mueller had escaped through a
secret passageway known only to him and Eichmann.
- On the paragraph above see Landeskriminalamt
Baden-Wuuml;rttemberg, Sonderkommission Zentrale Stelle, Tgb.
Nr. SK. ZSt. III/I-79/60, 29 July 1960 to Barnett at the U.S. Consulate,
IRR, XE 23 55 39; Landeskriminalamt Baden-Wuuml;rtemmberg Sonderkommission
Zentrale Stelle, SK ZSt. I/1-79/60 to Zentrale Stelle Ludwigsburg,
27 February 1961, ibid. The U.S. Army helped for ninety days beginning
in May 1961 with the surveillance of Mueller's father and children,
but this surveillance yielded no results.
- The witnesses, questioned in connection
with a West German police investigation in 1961, are quoted in "The
Hunt for 'Gestapo Mueller,'" pp. 16, 18.
- [CIA/EUR] to Chief, EE and Chief SR, [A]-44835,
24 September 1959, Mueller file, vol. 1.
- On the details above, see the lengthy German
police reports of 1960 and 1961 submitted to U.S. Army Counter Intelligence
and contained in Mueller's IRR file, NA RG 319, IRR File Mueller,
XE 23 55 39. Fainter copies of these reports were made available
by the Army to the CIA in 1970 and are included in the CIA Mueller
File, vol. 2; See also "The Hunt for 'Gestapo Mueller,'"
pp.19-26, 32-3, 34-37. On the effects, see "The Hunt for 'Gestapo
Mueller'", p. 33.
- Memo [A]-744, 10 May 1961, Mueller file,
vol. 2; Memo of 17 March 1961, Mueller File, vol. 2. The defector's
name is redacted.
- To: Chief, EE, Chief SR, A[Excised] LCIMPROVE/[Excised]/[Excised]
/Operations Further [Excised] Reports on Rote Kapelle Personalities,
24 September 1959, Mueller File, Vol. 1. The informant is revealed
by name as Pannwitz in "The Hunt for 'Gestapo Mueller,'"
pp. 14-16, Mueller File, Volume 2.
- On Felfe, see Mary Ellen Reese, General
Reinhard Gehlen: The CIA Connection (Fairfax, Va.: George Mason
University Press, 1990), pp. 143-72. On Loellgen's non-arrest, see
Review of File: Jakob LOELLGEN, 9 February 1971, Mueller File, vol.
- See CIA/Eur, June 23, 1961 in Mueller file
, vol. 1. Regarding the defector's comments in 1971 see "The
Hunt for 'Gestapo Mueller,'" pp. 25, 25a and the Memorandum
for the Record of 18 November 1971 in Mueller file, vol. 1. This
defector had never seen Mueller himself.
- "Gestapo-Muuml;ller lebt in Albanien,"
Stern, January 1964; "Die Spur fuuml;hrt nach Suuml;damerika,"
Stern, 16 August 1964. The latter article in full is xeroxed in
Mueller file, vol. 1.
- On the possibility of disinformation, see
[CIA/EUR] dispatch [A] - 3564 CS, 31 January 1964.
- Memo [A]-13564, 31 January 1964, Mueller
file, vol. 1.
- [CIA/EUR] to Chief, EE, [A]-63831, 5 February
- Staff memorandum December 9, 1970, Mueller
File, Volume 1. This is a debriefing of a defector with inside knowledge
of Czech intelligence and KGB active measures. The 1971 CI Staff
history further identifies this source as an apparently reliable
Czechoslovak defector. See "The Hunt for 'Gestapo Mueller,'"
p. 38. The information which this defector provided and the timing
of this defection strongly suggests that this source was Ladislas
- Memo [A]-19267, 9 December 1970, Mueller
file, vol. 1.
- The 9 December 1971 memo is in Mueller
file, vol. 2.
- "Gestapo-Muuml;ller - Kein Nazi,"
Der Spiegel, 16 October 1963, copy in Mueller file.
- Chief, WOMUSE, via Chief, EUR, to [CIA/EUR],
[CIA/EUR] 22899, 7 October 1970, Mueller file, vol. 1.
- Memo [CIA/EUR] 22984, 15 December 1970,
Mueller file, vol 1.
- See the xeroxed copies of Schellenberg,
The Labyrinth, and Hagen, Die geheime Front, dated December 1970
in Mueller file, vol. 1.
- Memorandum for the Record, 10 February 1971,
"The Man who probably knows what became of Heinrich (Gestapo)
Mueller," Mueller File, vol. 2.
- "How do we get LOELLGEN to talk?"
10 February 1971, Mueller file, vol 2.
- As a part of the CI Staff's investigation,
the CIA requested files from the U.S. Army on some of Mueller's
associates. Those documents were released to NARA, but are largely