Sheikh Omar Bakri Muhammad
(1958 - )
Syrian born radical Islamist Sheikh Omar
bin Bakri Muhammad is the founder of the
London branch of Hizb Al-Tahrir (the Islamic
Liberation Party ), and of the organization
"Jama'at Al-Muhajirun" ("The
Emigrants," in reference to those
who accompanied the Prophet Muhammad on
his Hijra from Mecca to Medina). Additionally,
Sheikh Bakri presents himself as the spokesman
of Osama bin Laden's International Islamic
Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders.
This organization, by Bakri's own admission,
participates in fundraising for Hamas
and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and
is "in touch" with Hizbullah.
Bakri has further claimed to have recruited
volunteers for training in paramilitary
camps located in the U.S. and Lebanon.
Bakri's Activities: A Partial Timeline
The Paris-based Intelligence Newsletter
reported that Bakri was recruited at an
early age by the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood
movement, and participated in its leader's,
Issam Al-Attar, revolt against then-Syrian
President Hafez Assad that was "drowned
in blood in 1982 at Hamat." As a
result, he was expelled from Syria and
moved to Beirut.
In Beirut, he joined Sheikh Khalil Al-Mat
and the local branch of Hizb Al-Tahrir.
Then, in 1983, (or according to some versions
in 1979 during Syria's invasion of Lebanon)
he took the alias of Omar Fustuk and settled
in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, where he established
"Al-Muhajirun" as a front for
the Hizb Al-Tahrir in the Arabian Peninsula.
Al-Muhajirun now has offshoots in Lille,
France, and Hanover, Germany. In 1995,
47 Sunni organizations were reported to
be active in Western Europe under the
umbrella of Hizb Al-Tahrir, which is headquartered
In 1985, after the Saudi government deported
him he then went to London where he later
left Hizb Al-Tahrir following a disagreement
with its leaders. While Bakri wanted to
deal with numerous issues troubling the
Muslim community, such as racism and unemployment,
the Hizb Al-Tahrir leaders claimed that
such activity would sidetrack the party
from its main goal, the establishment
of an Islamic caliphate.
In 1993, Bakri became a legal resident
of Britain, and in March 1996 he applied
Sheikh Omar Bakri preaches at several
London mosques. Between 1994 and 1998,
he gave speeches at Islamist rallies in
Trafalgar Square and Wembley Stadium.
He founded the Al-Khilafa publishing house
in London and serves, he says, as a judge
in the "Shari'a Court of the UK."
Bakri often presents himself as the spokesman
of the International Islamic Front, and
cited this title on a letter he wrote
to Osama bin Laden. Bakri has described
the International Islamic Front as the
political wing of the [International]
Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and
Crusaders, led by Osama bin Laden.
In an interview with the Daily Mirror,
Sheikh Bakri acknowledged that he lives
on social benefits from the British government:
"He receives nearly £300 a
week in state handouts for himself, his
[Lebanese] wife, and their five (as of
1996) children. He told the Mirror, 'Islam
allows me to take the benefit the system
offers. I'm fully eligible. It is very
difficult for me to get a job. Anyway,
most of the leadership of the Islamic
movement is on [state] benefit.'"
Up until September 1998, when seven radical
Muslims were arrested in London on suspicion
of involvement in terrorist activity,
Bakri insisted that the British government
was tolerant of his activities. In an
interview with the London Arabic-language
daily Al-Sharq Al-Awsat on August 22,
1998, Bakri was asked why the Islamic
groups never attacked Britain. Bakri replied,
"I work here in accordance with the
covenant of peace which I made with the
British government when I got [political]
We respect the terms of this
bond as Allah orders us to do."
The London Sunday Times reported that
one of Bakri's aides, Makbool Javid, was
appointed by Jack Straw, then Home Secretary
in Blair's government, to the newly-established
Race Relations Forum. In an interview
some nine months later, Bakri said, "The
British government knows who we are. MI5
has interrogated us many times. I think
now we have something called public immunity."
But after the arrest of the seven, Bakri
changed his tune, and in an interview
with an Egyptian weekly he denounced Britain
as "the spearhead of blasphemy that
seeks to overthrow Muslims and the Islamic
caliphate." He explained that "the
arrested Egyptians are political refugees
who are not involved in terrorist activities,"
adding that Muslims in Britain condemn
the "barbaric" acts of the British
government against "innocent Muslims
who, it is now apparent, were lulled and
betrayed into believing they could seek
sanctuary in Britain from their corrupt
It is clear the British
government has adopted a harsh policy
against the peaceful Muslim community,
using fear, force, and the methods of
tyrannical regimes such as Saudi Arabia,
Egypt, Iraq, Algeria, Syria, Iran, and
other Middle Eastern governments
[as] a ransom for future economic favors"
extracted after a recent visit to London
by Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince.
Actually, the friction between Sheikh
Bakhri and the British government began
long before September 1998. As early as
1991, during the Gulf War, Bakri was questioned
by MI5, following a claim that he had
called for the assassination of then-Prime
Minister John Major. According to the
Mail on Sunday, Bakri said: "Major
is a legitimate target. If anyone gets
the opportunity to assassinate him, I
don't think they should save it. It is
our Islamic duty and we will celebrate
his death." Bakri later told
The Birmingham Sunday Mercury that he
had been "misquoted," and clarified
the point, saying that Major would be
a "legitimate target" if he
were to set foot in a Muslim country and
that the same now applied to British Prime
Minister Tony Blair. Bakri also said that
in such a case he would not "condemn
This incident recently repeated itself,
when Al-Muhajirun spokesman Abd Al-Rahman
Salim said that Blair had become a legitimate
target for any Muslim who wants to assassinate
him, due to his involvement in the attacks
on Afghanistan. The AFP quoted Salim as
saying: "Now that the Americans,
the British, and, it is safe to assume,
also the French, have begun to bomb Muslims
in Afghanistan, government buildings here
[in Britain], military installations,
and No. 10 Downing Street have become
legitimate targets. This also means Prime
Minister Tony Blair has become a legitimate
target. If any Muslim wants to kill him
or get rid of him, I would not shed a
tear for him. In the Islamic view, such
a man would not be punished for his deeds,
but would be praised."
In December 2000, Bakri went to Birmingham
to recruit volunteers, and while being
there he gave an interview to The Birmingham
Sunday Mercury on December 12, 2000. In
the interview, Bakri explained that he
had come to Birmingham to recruit people
not only as members for his Al-Muhajirun
party, but also to fight abroad in places
such as Kashmir, Afghanistan, and Chechnya.
He said that in Britain there were only
physical training camps, but that volunteers
were sent from Britain to military training
camps in South Africa, Nigeria, Afghanistan,
Kashmir, and the U.S.
The issue of paramilitary training courses
was discussed at length in an interview
Bakri gave to CNSNews.com, in which he
again acknowledged that he was involved
in financing training for volunteers sent
to the U.S. He explained that his "Jihad
network" was taking advantage of
the fact that firearms training with live
ammunition was more readily available
in America than in Britain. "When
we started to go to Afghanistan,"
Bakri said, "they started to label
us terrorists, so now we go to the USA!"
According to Bakri, some of the men undergoing
training in the use of firearms and explosives,
and in surveillance and other skills,
would be expected to join Jihad in one
country or another. "Some may decide,
'I want to go and help my Muslim brothers
in Chechnya or Palestine or Kashmir or
South Lebanon.' That's up to them. It's
independent of the organization,"
Bakri added that the training camps were
run by private firms in "certain
places," among them Michigan and
Missouri, and that Muslims from various
countries trained there for periods ranging
from one week to three months. The recruits
had "different backgrounds
some British, some American, Arab, or
Asian but all of them have European
or American citizenship. There is no need
for visas," he said.
"It's not illegal. We aren't hiding
anything. It should be looked at with
an open mind. We're talking purely about
helping people who would like to train.
The skills they learn
are part of
the religious obligation every Muslim
has. A Muslim must have military training
at least once in his life," he said.
In another interview, Bakri claimed that
the Koran stated that it is the obligation
of every Muslim reaching the age of 15
to do military service.
Bakri continued, "In our [Muslim]
countries, this is easy. We can fulfill
this obligation by joining our national
armies. But some Muslims would not like
to join the British or American forces...
[and] would rather go to an independent
"Why call this 'terror training?'
All Americans can learn how to shoot
what happens when this American person
is a Muslim? Or are you calling us second-
or third-class citizens?" Bakri asked.
In another interview, with Milan's Il
Giornale on October 14, 2000, Bakri said
that The International Islamic Front for
Jihad against the Jews and the Crusaders
(The IIF), created by Osama bin Laden,
was actively supporting Hamas and the
Palestinian Islamic Jihad. "We collect
funds to be able to carry on the struggle;
we recruit militiamen; and sometimes we
take care of these groups' propaganda
requirements in Europe." According
to Bakri, during the previous month The
IIF had recruited 160 volunteers in Britain
and sent them to Jordan, where they awaited
opportunities to infiltrate into the West
Bank and join the uprising against Israel.
Recruits had also been sent in recent
months to Lebanon, where they were training
in Palestinian refugee camps. "In
the 'Ein Al-Hilweh camp, for instance,
new mujahideen are being recruited and
trained with the aim of opening up another
front in south Lebanon." He added
that The IIF is also "in touch with
Hizbullah and with Islamic movements such
as Usbat Al-Ansar, which are determined
to fight for the liberation of Jerusalem."
The Asian Age magazine reported that
Bakri claimed that it was he who had recruited
24-year-old Muhammad Bilal to carry out
the suicide attack that killed a number
of Indian soldiers in Srinagar in December
2000. Bakri said that Bilal's brothers
and cousins had also been trained by Al-Muhajirun,
and that Bilal's parents were "proud
of their son's sacrifice." He added
that he had recruited 600 British Muslims
in universities and mosques to fight in
Kashmir. The magazine also reported that
Bakri finances the Al-Maddad organization,
which, with other groups, has recruited
2000 other young men from all over Britain.
Sheikh Bakri's fame has spread as far
as eastern Asia, where The Bangkok Post
reported that "
are receiving terrorist training and money
from foreign supporters." According
to the paper, a training farm about 20
kilometers from the Thai-Malaysian border
had ties with "the Mideast and radical
Muslims based in London." The paper
mentioned Bakri as one of the farm's "foreign
Bakri has no objections to airplane hijackings,
as indicated by his statements to the
Egyptian weekly Roz Al-Yussuf: "The
Islamic movement has the right to sacrifice
whoever it sees fit. The rule is that
[Muslim] children, women, and the weak
should not be a goal except in one situation:
if it is difficult to win without sacrificing
them. So, if hijackers find [Muslim] women,
and children and elderly people on a [hijacked]
plane, they should set them free except
if the goal of the hijackers is to free
women, children, and elderly people held
prisoners in countries. In this case,
they can be kept, because the blood of
Muslims is equal [to others' blood], but
they can sacrifice foreigners on the plane
and if you study Shari'a you will know
that. The fedya [ransom] of a Muslim is
12,000 dirhams, while that of a Dhimmi
[i.e. a Christian or a Jew under Muslim
rule] is 4,000 dirhams."
bin Laden Connection
On several occasions, Sheikh Bakri presented
himself as the spokesman of the political
wing of The International Islamic Front
for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders,
established by Osama bin Laden in 1996.
Al-Ahram Weekly reported that Bakri was
known for his connections with bin Laden,
whom he described, in an interview with
the weekly, as "the leader of all
Islamist movements, whether we like it
However, in his interview with CNSNews.com,
Bakri denied any organizational connection
with bin Laden. "We have no direct
links with Osama bin Laden," he declared.
"[But] we have ideological links
with the world Islamic movement, including
Osama bin Laden. We may agree with him
in something and disagree with him in
something. At the end of the day, there
is no proof yet that he is involved in
any terrorist activity. If terrorism means
someone is supporting Muslims against
the occupying forces in Somalia or in
Arabia, I will never call him a terrorist.
I will call him a freedom fighter. I will
call him a hero."
Bin Laden was to participate, albeit
not physically, in the Rally for [Islamic]
Revival, planned by Bakri for September
6, 1996 but cancelled at the last minute.
The conference was to have been one of
the high points of Bakri's career, and
Radical Islamist leaders from all over
the world were to participate in one way
or another. Bin Laden was to send a videocassette,
as were Sheikh Omar Abd Al-Rahman, imprisoned
in the U.S.; Hamas founder Sheikh Ahmad
Yassin, who at that time was still imprisoned
in Israel; and Hizbullah spiritual leader
Sheikh Muhammad Hussein Fadhlallah. Sheikh
Muhammad Ubaid, also of Hizbullah, who
had been kidnapped by Israel, was supposed
to send a "message" from his
prison cell in Israel. Also expected to
attend was Egyptian Jihad leader Yasser
Tawfiq Al-Serri, who was sentenced to
death in absentia in Egypt in 1993 for
a failed assassination attempt on Egyptian
Prime Minister Atef Sidqi. Recorded messages
were also sent by the imprisoned leaders
of the Algerian Islamic movement.
Following severe pressure by the Egyptian,
Algerian, and Israeli governments, the
British Home Office announced that Scotland
Yard would be monitoring the conference
for "statements made in support of
terrorism or racism [that] would be in
violation of British law" and a threat
of possible persecution for any such statements.
The conference was subsequently cancelled.
After the bombing of U.S. embassies in
Africa, Bakri said that even if it was
proven that bin Laden was responsible
for the bombings in Saudi Arabia, Kenya,
and Tanzania, "those still remain
legitimate acts." He added, "The
American troops in the Gulf region are
there to fight against Islam and Muslims.
Their presence is not legitimate and fighting
against them is the duty of every Muslim.
The American bombing of Sudan and Afghanistan,
the war against Iraq and America's blind
support for the Israeli enemy these
are acts of war against Allah and his
After the American missile attack on
Afghanistan and the Sudan, Bakri read
an announcement, that he said had come
directly from bin Laden, to the Italian
daily La Repubblica on August 24, 1998.
The announcement said, "
war has begun. Our response to the barbaric
bombardment against Muslims of Afghanistan
and Sudan will be ruthless and violent
Bakri added, "Our response could
happen in any corner of the world. Retaliation
for the U.S. attacks will end only when
the last American soldier has left Saudi
Arabia and the Gulf, and when the embargo
against Iraq is over
We will not
give a truce to America."
On July 15, 1999, Bakri published a letter
written to bin Laden on his Al-Muhajirun
website, calling on him to act against
the West. The letter was removed from
the site after U.S. protest, but was read
aloud in mosques in North London, Bradford,
Sheffield, and Leicester. In his letter,
Bakri wrote, "
The Islamic Movements
have not used the real weapon yet
You and your brothers are
now breathing life and dignity into the
body of the Ummah (nation). Our main mission
as Muslims is to carry the Islamic message
to the entire world
"We are an Ummah of Jihad and beyond
doubt we have been chosen by Allah to
lead the whole world if we hold to his
The opportunity is here
and we must not pass it by
brothers are firm in their Jihad so we
must not lose time aimlessly and act now.
The Ummah is our Ummah, the war is our
war, and the enemy is our enemy, the mujahideen
are our brothers, the victory or defeat
is our victory or defeat, and the Khilafa
is our Khilafa. Oh Osama
hear the good news from you and your brothers,
for a new dawn is near at hand."
According to several sources, a reply
from bin Laden was read aloud in mosques
in London and Pakistan.
Excerpts of another letter to Bakri by
bin Laden, sent by fax from Afghanistan
in the summer of 1998, were recently published
in The Los Angeles Times. Bakri later
released what he called bin Laden's four
specific objectives for a Jihad against
the U.S.: "Bring down their airliners.
Prevent the safe passage of their ships.
Occupy their embassies. Force the closure
of their companies and banks."
Sheikh Bakri's radical ideological doctrine
is manifested in many different spheres.
On several occasions, Bakri has expressed
his hatred of Jews. He had "Kill
the Jews" posters printed, and claimed
that these were not his words but the
words of the "scriptures." 
In the Mercury interview, Bakri said that
the Holocaust was "a tool used by
Jews in order to justify their own hegemony
over Muslims in Palestine. Much worse
crimes have been committed against Muslims
in Chechnya, Kashmir and Palestine."
Yet after issuing a Fatwa calling on
Muslims to fight against Israel, Bakri
told the BBC, "We have no problem
with the Jewish community here. Our real
problem is with the occupying forces
We are talking about a cancer in the heart
of the Muslim world and that is Israel.
It must be eradicated and removed."
On another occasion, Bakri told protesters
at a violent demonstration outside the
London Central Mosque in Regent Park,
"All Israeli targets are legitimate
for you. All Israelis must be destroyed."
Bakri also called for the death of playwright
Terence McNally for portraying Jesus Christ,
considered by Islam to be a prophet, as
a homosexual in his play Corpus Christi.
Bakri also reportedly urged all homosexuals
to throw themselves from Big Ben.
In response, the Lesbian Avengers and
Outrage, two London-based gay-rights groups,
held a mock trial for Bakri, issuing a
"Queer Fatwa" that read: "Omar
Bakri Muhammad is hereby sentenced to
1,000 years of relentless sodomitical
The most significant element of Bakri's
doctrine is Jihad. A document entitled
"Jihad: The foreign policy of the
Islamic state" was posted on the
Al-Muhajirun website. The document included
a lengthy, in-depth analysis of the meaning
of Jihad. "Jihad, as a term, cannot
be translated as 'holy war,'" it
said, "nor can it be translated as
'struggle.' At best, its legal meaning
can be understood as 'using military force,
where diplomacy fails, to remove the obstacles
the Islamic State faces in carrying its
ideology to mankind.'
"The aim of Jihad, unlike the Crusades,
past and present, is not to forcibly convert
to Islam the inhabitants of other lands.
Rather, it is to provide them with the
security that comes from the application
of Islam, leaving them the choice of adopting
Islam or keeping their own religions
History confirms that this is and always
has been the role of Jihad, for it was
in Muslim Spain that the Muslims, Christians,
and Jews were able to live peacefully
under an Islamic authority
"The difference between the use
of force by the West and that by Islam
is that the Capitalist West uses force
overtly and covertly for the benefit of
a few, such as corporations, while Islam
uses force openly and justly to carry
its mercy to others
one of the main
Pillars of Islam after Tawhid (the assertion
of Monotheistic faith) and Da'wa (proselytizing).
In fact, Jihad is
Da'wa by the Islamic
state as its foreign policy."
Unlike his London colleague Sheikh Abu
Hamza Al-Masri (see Radical Islamist Profiles
1), who maintains that the Islamic
revolution must begin in Yemen
Sheikh Bakri says that the revolution
must begin in London. The Mercury reported
that Bakri "lusts for the establishment
of a global Islamic regime called Al-Khilafa,
starting here in the UK" and that
he wants to see the UK become the first
Islamic state in a new world order. The
paper also reported that Bakri called
British laws and democracy 'phony' rules
made up by "the monkeys in Parliament."
In an interview with the French Le Monde,
Bakri stated his "intention to make
the flag of Islam fly high at No. 10 Downing
Street and at the Elysee." The article
continues, "Islam, according to him,
is the supreme ideology facing an immoral
all contemporary leaders
of the Muslim world, with no exceptions,
are pawns of the West."
Similar messages were conveyed in an
interview Bakri gave to Yeshiva University
undergraduate newspaper editor Aaron Klein,
who attended one of Bakri's conferences
and reported on it in The Jerusalem Post.
In a speech at the conference, Bakri said,
"With thanks to Allah, we bring peace
to all, and we help the world realize
that Islam is the only way of life
Terrorism according to the West is defined
as 'the systematic use of violence to
achieve political or religious ends
Al-Muhajirun defines terrorism as 'to
attack without the divine right'
Bakri told Klein, "
is a target of the Jihad, and American
forces are a target of the Jihad wherever
American people must reconsider
their foreign policy, or their children
will be sent back to them in coffins.
They need to think about the consequences
of maintaining forces in Lebanon, the
Golan Heights, and the Middle East as
a whole. Clinton is responsible and he
[The existence of Israel]
is a crime. Israel must be removed
Our duty is to work to establish
an Islamic state anywhere in the world,
even in Britain
. Life is protected
under us. There will be no minorities
and majorities as in America. antisemitism
in the U.S. is disgraceful. Synagogues
and churches will flourish in the Khilafa
as long as they adopt Islamic law. We
restored life for Jews after the Crusades,
and we plan to do so again
"And what Clinton and Barak are
doing [in the peace process, then at its
height] is putting themselves in a position
of God, so they are now at direct war
with the people who believe in God."
to the Attacks on U.S. and U.S.-UK Operation
Following the September 11, 2001 attacks
on the U.S., Bakri told the BBC that "what
happened was a direct consequence of the
evil foreign policy of the USA. This is
the compensation and payback for its own
atrocities against Muslims."
The Al-Muhajirun website offered an in-depth
look at the issue, under the headline,
"USA at war with Islam":
"In the eventuality that the American
forces launch [an] attack against Taliban,
the divine verdict already expounded by
the Scholars of Islam is that the military
and government buildings, the war machine
and the soldiers of the alliance will
all become legitimate targets for Muslims
wherever they are in the world and they
must be fought against
"Oh Muslims, stand together and
unite our Ummah (nation) to fight against
the enemies of Allah and his Messenger
Muhammad in this time of need. The Book
of Allah (i.e. the Koran) calls you, the
Ummah cries for your help and Paradise
awaits you. Verily, Allah orders you in
the Koran: 'Go and fight, young or old,
and sacrifice your wealth and life in
order to get paradise' (9:41) and 'Fight
the Mushriks [polytheists] all together
the way they fight you all together' (9:36)
It is time that we made a
clear and unambiguous distinction between
haq [truth] and batil [falsehood], between
Imaan [belief] and Kufr [heresy], between
oppressors and the oppressed, between
the alliance of Shaytaan [Satan] and that
Sheikh Bakri also issued a "Fatwa
Against [Pakistan's President] General
Musharraf USA." This ruling
was posted on the Al-Mahajirun Website
in Arabic, as well as in an English version.
In Arabic, it reads: "Question: What
do the clerics say about Saudi Arabia,
Pakistan, and other Islamic states allowing
the U.S. to use their land, skies, ports,
and military bases
preparations are underway for striking
a blow at the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
[i.e., the Taliban-ruled Afghanistan]
"Answer: There is no doubt that
America attacked, and is still attacking,
the Muslims in every place and is carrying
out massacres against them
the obligation of all Muslims to be in
a state of war with it. The minimal obligation
is a complete boycott, by means of avoiding
diplomatic relations [with the U.S.]
The only ones who claim that 'diplomatic
relations' [with the U.S.] are allowed
are the clerics of the treacherous sultans
(i.e. the rulers of Arab and Islamic countries),
most of whom are donkeys bearing books,
and some are like dogs: they have renounced
the verses of Allah and become like dogs,
that should be left to pant, as a place
is already reserved for them, surely on
the lowest level of the fires of Hell."
is clear and there is no need for any
doubt among any of the Muslims: They are
Murtaddun [who were Muslims] who left
Islam for heresy, if, at all, they were
Muslims to begin with. They all are involved
in the war against Islam and against Muslims
and therefore the sentence of Murtadd
Harbi [a Murtadd who should be fought]
applies to them, as follows:"
"1)His blood becomes permissible,
and he must be killed, as an obligatory
punishment, without possibility of forgiveness,
because he fights against Allah and his
2)His marriage becomes invalid,
as does his guardianship of his children
3)His property is
he will not be able
to bequeath [it]
4)He cannot be
buried in a Muslim cemetery, because burying
Muslims is an honor that is fitting only
those who are Muslims, while they, male
and female alike, are Murtaddun Harbiyun
[who should be fought] and are not Muslims
5)He must be treated with animosity and
hatred, exactly like the Harbi heretic
6)There is no distinction
between a man and a woman with respect
to this verse. The blood of a woman Murtadda
Harbiya who fights is permissible, exactly
like that of a male Harbi even
if her fighting is limited to singing:
thus acted the Prophet against the fighting
women of the Quraysh tribe. He permitted
their blood and ordered them killed, although
he generally prohibited killing women,
and was even strict about this
The Fatwa appeared under the emblem of
the "Shari'a Court of the UK,"
and, in the Arabic version, was signed
by Sheikh Bakri, Shari'a Court Judge in
London, and by the Secretary General of
the Committee for the Protection of Legitimate
Rights (in Saudi Arabia), Muhammad bin
Abdallah Al-Musa'ari "Abu Majed."
The two called on all Muslim clerics to
study the matter and add their signatures
to the ruling.
However, during its translation into
English, the Fatwa underwent a transformation.
It was signed by "Juristic Muslim
scholars from various countries such as:
Syria, Lebanon, Kuwait, the Emirates [UAE],
Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and
" In this version, the names
of Bakri and Al-Musa'ari appear only at
the bottom, with telephone numbers for
obtaining further information.
The English version also lacks the section
about "book-bearing donkeys"
and "panting dogs," and is replaced
by the Koranic verse establishing that
"the punishment of those who wage
war against Allah and His Prophet and
strive to make mischief in the land is
only this, that they should be murdered
or crucified or their hands and their
feet should be cut off on opposite sides,
or they should be imprisoned
Similarly, the section referring to the
Prophet Muhammad's killing of the Quraysh
women is replaced by a paragraph that
reads, "Therefore we ask Muslims
with the capability, especially the army
of Muslim countries, to move quickly and
to capture those Apostates and criminals
involved in these crimes, especially the
ruler of Pakistan, King Fahd of Saudi
Arabia, and Rabbani of Afghanistan and
his followers [in the Northern Alliance]
*Yotam Feldner is MEMRI's Director of
**Please note, some links may no longer
 Established in 1953 in Jerusalem
by the Palestinian Taqi Al-Din Al-Nabahani.
 Intelligence Newsletter, September
19, 1996, No. 295, http://msanews.mynet.net/MSANEWS/199610/19961911.1.html.
 The Observer, August 13, 1995, http://msanews.mynet.net/MSANEWS/19960908.html
 Al-Ahram Weekly (Egypt), November
 The Daily Mirror, September 7, 1996,
 Executive Intelligence Review, September
 CNSNews.com, May 24, 2000.
 Al-Ahram Weekly (Egypt), October
 Mail on Sunday, November 12, 1995.
 Al-Hayat Al-Jadida (Palestinian
Authority), October 10, 2001.
 CNSNews.com, May 24, 2000.
 Middle East Intelligence Bulletin,
 Dawn Weekly, "The battle for
hearts and minds," Irfan Husain,
October 6, 2001.
 Periscope Daily Defense News Capsules,
September 4, 1996.
 Roz Al-Youssef, Egypt, September
13, 1999, www.geocities.com/~lrcc/Women/comment.htm
 Al-Ahram Weekly (Egypt), November
 CNSNews.com, May 24, 2000.
 Al-Ahram Weekly (Egypt), November
 The Los Angeles Times, October 14,
 BBC News, October 14, 2000.
 The Times, September 9, 1996, http://msanews.mynet.net/MSANEWS/199610/19961011.html
 The Guardian, September 9, 1996,
 See MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No.
 Le Monde, September 9, 1998; http://msanews.mynet.net/MSANEWS/199610/19961011.html
 The Jerusalem Post, May 30, 2000.
 AFP, September 14, 2001.