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Palestinian Public Opinion Polls:
Attitudes About Peace With Israel

(2003)


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Do you believe God wants Jews to fight Muslims? [Do you believe Allah wants Muslims to fight Jews?] (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews [Israeli Arabs] [Palestinians]
Yes 12% [31%] [31%]
No 64% [52%] [47%]
Don't Know 18% [15%] [22%]
Don't Believe in God / [Allah] 7% [2%] [--]

First, in your opinion, which nation or people is the single greatest threat to WORLD peace? I need you to pick only one nation or people you think is the single greatest threat to WORLD peace. (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Iran 52% 3% 1%
Palestinians 8% 5% 1%
Iraq 7% 1% 1%
Moslems in General 6% -- --
United States 4% 40% 36%
Syria 3% -- --
Saudi Arabia 3% -- 1%
North Korea 3% -- 1%
Israel 2% 26% 51%
All Arab Countries 2% -- --
China 1% 1% 1%
Other 4% 4% 2%
Don't Know/Refused 9% 22% 7%

Now think towards the future. When your children are your age, do you think there will be peace between Israelis and Palestinians? (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Definitely 4% 18% 3%
Probably 18% 31% 21%
Possibly 18% 15% 16%
Probably not 21% 10% 15%
Definitely Not 36% 26% 37%
Don't Know 3% 2% 8%

The Palestinians have a right to a Palestinian state. [JEWS HAVE A RIGHT TO A JEWISH STATE] (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Strongly agree 28% [37%] [19%]
Somewhat agree 39% [32%] [31%]
Somewhat disagree 8% [9%] [5%]
Strongly disagree 24% [19%] [33%]
Don't know 2% [4%] [12%]

What is your opinion of the current “Roadmap” for peace? Do you …? If you are unfamiliar with the roadmap, just say so. (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Strongly support 8% 27% 7%
Somewhat support 35% 31% 25%
Somewhat oppose 15% 10% 20%
Strongly oppose 15% 19% 32%
Familiar with the road map but don't have an opinion 7% 5% 7%
Unfamiliar with the road map 21% 10% 10%

When Palestinian leaders refer to "occupied territories," do you think they mean ___. (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
All of the West Bank and Gaza Strip 17% 64% 48%
All of the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel 78% 25% 37%
Something Else 5% 11% 15%

The goal of Israeli policy should be to control all of Judea and Samaria. [The goal of a Palestinian policy should be a Palestinian state that includes Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jerusalem.] (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Strongly agree 29% [15%] [21%]
Somewhat agree 19% [17%] [18%]
Somewhat disagree 22% [14%] [25%]
Strongly disagree 27% [49%] [27%]
Don't know 5% [6%] [9%]

Do you believe the final Israeli boundaries should be all of Judea and Samaria as described in the bible? (PORI, September 2003) (If yes…) Should Israel go to war against the Palestinians to achieve these boundaries?

[Do you believe the final Palestinian boundaries should include Jaffa, Haifa and all of Jerusalem? (PORI, September 2003) (If yes …) Should the Palestinians go to war against Israel to achieve these final boundaries?] (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Yes/Should Go to War 18% [20%] [25%]
Yes/Should Not Go to War 22% [10%] [18%]
No 55% [64%] [33%]
Don't Know 5% [7%] [24%]

If the Palestinians were to stop the terrorist attacks and give up the right of return, should Israel withdraw from all the territories, including East Jerusalem, and grant them statehood? (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Yes 38% -- --
No 57% -- --
Don't Know 4% -- --

[If Israel were to leave all the territories, including East Jerusalem, and grant statehood to the Palestinians, should Palestinians give up the right of return?] (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews [Israeli Arabs] [Palestinians]
Yes -- [26%] [11%]
No -- [65%] [80%]
Don't Know -- [10%] [9%]

[And if Israel were to leave all territories, including East Jerusalem, and grant statehood to the Palestinians, should Hamas and Islamic Jihad give up their armed struggle against Israel?] (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Yes -- [83%] [26%]
No -- [13%] [59%}
Don't Know -- [5%] [16%]

How would you feel if a future Palestinian state were to be governed by Sha'riah law? (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Very favorable 2% 32% 33%
Somewhat favorable 5% 25% 36%
Somewhat unfavorable 16% 10% 22%
Don't Know/Refused 11% 7% 7%

And what should happen to Yassir Arafat now? (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Israel should exile him 24% 4% 1%
He is the only legitimate Palestinian leader and should be totally free to lead 6% 58% 55%
He is a legitimate leader but Palestinians should replace him with a better leader 45% 31% 23%
Israel should kill him 20% -- --
Don't know 5% 7% 21%

Which of the following is most important to you? (PORI, September 2003)

  Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Palestinians
Peace 47% 53% 23%
Freedom 20% 21% 29%
* Death through Kiddush Hashem / **[Shahada] 4% [5%] [23%]
Your Homeland 25% 21% 24%
Don't know 4% 1% 3%

*Martyrdom, dying defending one's religion or people (PORI, September 2003) **Death For Allah

Are you in favor or against the current renewal of negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians on the basis of the Road Map? (World Economic Forum, June 22, 2003)

Israeli Poll Palestinian Poll  
33.1 19.1 Strongly in favor
32.6 16.7 Somewhat in favor
10.7 13.9 Somewhat against
18.0 24.4 Strongly against
5.6 5.9 Don't know
65.7 55.8 Total in favor
28.7 38.3 Total against

Do you believe or not that both Israelis and Palestinians have the right to live in peace and security? (World Economic Forum, June 22, 2003)

Israeli Poll Palestinian Poll  
75.1 68.4 Yes
23.2 23.4 No
1.8 8.2 Don't Know

In your opinion, is there a chance that the Oslo Process will eventually result in the establishment of a genuine independent Palestinian State? (Source: JMCC, February 1999)

 
Israel 
Israel PA  
Palestinian Authority 
Arabs  (2/99)
Arabs (12/00)
Jews  (2/99)
Jews (12/00)
Total  (2/99)
Total (12/00)
West Bank  (2/99)
West Bank (12/00)
Gaza  (2/99)
Gaza Strip (12/00)
Total (2/99)
Total (12/00)
Surely yes
16.7
25.4
36.3
25.4
33.5
23.8
12.4
6.2
7.3
4.8
10.5
5.7
Probably yes
46.9
43.1
39.6
43.1
40.3
43.1
38.2
35.4
35.9
29.5
37.4
33.3
Probably no 
18.2
16.1
10.3
16.1
11.5
15.9
23.5
18.2
32.3
18.2
26.7
18.2
Surely no
6.2
7.8
6.8
7.8
6.9
9.4
23.3
30.6
22.7
63.2
23.1
35.2
Don't Know
12.1
7.6
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.8
2.6
9.6
1.8
4.3
2.3
7.6

Would you say that you are optimistic or pessimistic regarding the future of the Palestinians? (Source: JMCC Poll)

  Total (1/94) Total (5/95) Total (8/95) Total (10/95) Total (4/96) Total (8/96) Total (11/96) Total (5/97) Total (7/97) Total (8/97) Total (11/97) Total (12/97) Total (7/98)
Very optimistic 18.6 21.7 10.0 25.5 22.2 21.1 19.0 7.8 6.7 5.8 6.3 6.4 6.2
Somewhat optimistic 38.7   44.4 48.4 53.1 51.7 55.0            
Optimistic -- 51.8 -- --     -- 60.9 60.1 56.0 66.1 66.1 60.5
Somewhat pessimistic --   24.1 --     --            
Very pessimistic --   12.9 14.7 7.3 5.6 7.5 6.9 6.9 9.0 5.8 5.4 10.0
Pessimistic 3.7 25.2 -- 7.5 15.1 19.1 21.7 22.5 25.7 28.3 20.3 20.8 22.2
Don't know --   -- -- -- -- -- 1.7          
Other / No Opinion 2.2 1.3 -- -- 2.3 2.5              
No Answer 2.8   8.6 3.9     1.9 0.2 0.6 0.9 1.5 1.3 1.1

 

Total (2/99)

Total (8/99)

Total (10/99) Total (12/99) Total (7/00) Total (12/00) Total (4/01) Total (12/01) Total (3/02) Total (12/02) Total (4/03) Total (10/03)
Very optimistic 7.1 6.8 7.6 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.8 4.4 6.0 2.3 2.3 2.3
Somewhat optimistic                        
Optimistic 61.1 64.3 63.1 56.0 41.1 45.0 41.8 40.4 42.3 38.9 41.1 38.5
Somewhat pessimistic                        
Very pessimistic 8.8 7.6 8.0 9.0 19.9 13.2 16.3 23.7 17.4 23.9 21.2 20.3
Pessimistic 22.7 19.5 19.9 28.4 34.6 37.0 37.0 31.1 34.0 33.7 35.1 38.6
Don't know 0.3                      
Other / No Opinion       2.3                
No Answer   1.8 1.4   0.6 1.0 1.1 0.4 0.3 1.2 0.3 0.3

Would you say that you are optimistic or pessimistic regarding the future of the Palestinians? (Source: JMCC Poll)

  (12/96) (5/97) (7/97) 8/97 11/97 12/97 5/98 7/98 8/98 2/99
Very optimistic   7.5 6.1 5.3 5.6 5.6 5.4 4.3 5.4 4.7
Somewhat optimistic 62.2                  
Optimistic 10.0 57.7 57.0 54.1 66.5 64.8 59.9 60.9 62.6 61.1
Very pessimistic 6.2 7.6 6.9 9.7 5.6 6.4 11.0 9.8 10.6 9.3
Pessimistic 20.2 25.2 29.3 30.4 21.0 21.6 23.1 24.0 19.8 24.7
Don't Know -- 1.6               0.2
Other / No Opinion 1.3                  
No Answer   0.4 0.7 0.5 1.3 1.6 0.6 1.0 1.6  

  3/99 8/99 10/99 12/99 3/00 12/00 4/01 6/01 7/01 12/01 3/02 9/02 12/02 4/03 10/03
Very optimistic 4.9 6.0 5.8 4.1 6.2 4.0 3.8 5.4 4.1 5.4 5.3 4.2 3.0 1.8 2.2
Optimistic 63.8 66.7 65.7 57.0 61.0 47.3 45.5 45.5 41.4 36.7 43.3 38.7 36.8 38.9 41.4
Very pessimistic 6.8 6.3 6.7 7.8 7.1 11.9 13.7 13.3 22.5 25.6 16.1 28.3 26.4 21.7 20.7
Pessimistic 24.0 19.8 20.6 28.6 23.5 35.6 36.3 35.2 35.6 32.1 35.3 33.9 32.0 37.5 35.2
Don't Know       2.5                      
No Answer 0.5 1.2 1.2   1.2 1.2 0.7

0.6

1.1 0.2   0.2 1.8 0.1 0.5

Would you say that you are optimistic or pessimistic regarding the future of the Palestinians?
(Source: JMCC Poll)

  Gaza Strip (1/94) Gaza Strip (7/94) Gaza Strip (5/95) Gaza Strip (6/95) Gaza Strip (10/95) Gaza Strip (12/95) Gaza Strip (2/96) Gaza Strip (8/96) 11/96 12/96 5/97 7/97 8/97 11/97 12/97 5/98
Very optimistic 21.9 -- 25.5 -- 24.9 45.8   23.4 20.0   8.3 7.7 6.6 7.4 7.9 8.8
Somewhat optimistic 42.6 --   -- 49.4 35.2 29.5 56.4 62.8 62.3            
Optimistic -- 53.9 48.4 68.1 -- -- 56.0 -- -- 17.0 66.4 65.4 59.2 65.4 68.5 57.5
Somewhat pessimistic         -- --     --              
Very pessimistic         10.1 5.3   6.3 4.5 5.1 5.7 7.1 7.7 6.9 3.6 9.2
Pessimistic 32.8 30.0 24.9 22.6 12.7 11.6 12.9 12.7 12.6 14.9 17.7 19.6 24.6 19.0 19.2 23.3
Don't Know                     1.9          
Other / No Opinion 1.2 -- 1.2 3.8 -- 2.1 1.6 1.4 -- 0.8            
No Answer 1.6 16.1   5.5 2.9       0.1   0.0 0.2 1.9 1.9 0.8 1.2
  7/98 8/98 2/99 3/99 8/99 10/99 3/00 12/00 4/01 Gaza Strip (6/01) 7/01 12/01 3/02 9/02 12/02 4/03 10/03
Very optimistic 9.7 6.9 11.1 4.6 8.0 10.7 6.6 3.4 3.6 2.7 3.2 2.7 7.3 1.8 1.1 3.2 2.3
Somewhat optimistic                                  
Optimistic 59.9 62.5 61.1 65.0 60.2 58.4 62.5 41.1 35.7 47.5 40.5 46.8 40.7 40.2 42.5 45.0 33.4
Somewhat pessimistic                                  
Very pessimistic 10.4 8.7 8.0 5.5 9.8 10.3 7.1 15.5 20.9 16.8 22.5 20.5 19.5 23.9 19.5 20.5 19.5
Pessimistic 18.9 19.8 19.3 23.5 19.0 18.8 23.5 39.5 38.2 32.0 32.5 29.3 31.8 33.9 36.6 31.1 44.5
Don't Know                                  
Other / No Opinion     0.5                            
No Answer 1.1 2.1   1.4 3.0 1.8 0.0 0.5 1.6 1.0 1.1 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3

How optimistic or pessimistic are you about reaching a peaceful Arab-Israeli settlement? Would you say you are: (Source: JMCC/Steinmetz)

    Palestinian Area          
Total (12/97)
Total (3/99) Total (12/99) Total (12/01) Total (3/02) Total (9/02)
Total  (12/02)
Total (4/03) Total (10/03)
Very optimistic 
4.6% 
4.8
 4.3
2.5
1.3 2.1
1.2
1.2 0.9
Optimistic
54.5%
64.2
 56.0
28.5
31.5 22.7
24.8
27.2 26.0
Pessimistic
27.8%
23.9
 28.4
37.9
42.8 31.9
44.2
40.5 43.7
Very Pessimistic 
11.0%
6.3
 9.0
29.5
21.9 41.1
 27.9
29.4 28.2
No answer
2.1%
0.8
2.3 
1.6
2.6 2.2
1.9
1.7 1.2

How optimistic or pessimistic are you about reaching a peaceful Arab-Israeli settlement? Would you say you are: (Source: JMCC/Steinmetz)

Palestinian Area
West Bank  (12/97)
West Bank (3/99) West Bank (12/99) West Bank (12/01) West Bank (3/02) West Bank (9/02)
West Bank (12/02)
West Bank (4/03) West Bank (10/03)
Very optimistic 
3.9%
4.9
4.1 
 3.4
1.5 2.8
1.7
1.4 1.5
Optimistic
55.8%
63.8
 57.0
 28.4
31.4 19.8
21.8
26.3 29.8
Pessimistic
25.9%
24.0
 28.6
34.4
40.4 34.5
43.8
40.5 39.8
Very Pessimistic 
11.8%
6.8
 7.8
 31.5
23.3 39.9
 29.9
30.1 27.4
No answer
2.6%
0.5
 2.5
2.3
3.3 3.0
2.8
1.7 1.5

How optimistic or pessimistic are you about reaching a peaceful Arab-Israeli settlement? Would you say you are: (Source: JMCC/Steinmetz)

Gaza Strip (12/97)
Gaza Strip (3/99) Gaza Strip (12/99) Gaza Strip (12/01) Gaza Strip (3/02) Gaza Strip (9/02)
Gaza Strip (12/02)
Gaza Strip (4/03) Gaza Strip (10/03)
Very optimistic 
5.8%
4.6
 4.8
0.9 
0.9 0.9
0.2
0.9 0.0
Optimistic
52.2%
65.0
 54.3
28.6
31.6 27.7
29.8
28.9 19.5
Pessimistic
31.3%
23.5
 27.9
 43.9
46.6 27.3
44.8
40.7 50.2
Very Pessimistic 
9.4%
5.5
 11.2
 25.9
19.5 43.2
24.5
28.2 29.5
No answer
1.3%
1.4
1.8 
0.7
1.4 0.9
0.7
1.3 0.8

Some believe that the "Two - State Formula" is the best solution for the Israeli - Palestinian conflict while others believe that the historical Palestine cannot be divided into two states and therefore the best solution would be a "Bi-National State" in all of Palestine where Palestinians and Israelis enjoy equal rights, which of these two solutions would you prefer? (Source: JMCC Poll) 

 
Total (12/99) Total (12/00) Total (4/01)
Total  (6/01)
Total (9/01)

Total (12/01)

Total (3/02) Total (9/02) Total (12/02) Total (4/03) Total (10/03)
n=1199 - n=1199
n= 1201
n=1198 n=1201 --   n=1200 n=1201 n=1198
Two states Israeli & Palestinian 46.2 47.0 43.8
 47.2
42.9 48.8 41.6 44.0 46.5 51.9 45.7
Bi-national state in all of Palestine 20.6 20.3 24.8
22.2
31.8 27.6 31.6 28.9 26.2 25.1 25.3
Other 13.8 -- 0.9
0.7
  1.2   1.0     1.3
There is no solution 14.0 10.9 14.7
11.5
    0.1 12.6     9.4
Palestinian State with one nationality*     8.2
11.7
13.7 14.4 0.2 8.3 11.2 16.2 13.3
Islamic independent state with Jerusalem as its capital*                 5.4    
Islamic State*     2.8
1.4
2.9 3.2 3.4 2.1 4.6 3.1 3.4
Sovereign independent state with Jerusalem as its capital -- --   -- -- -- 5.7        
Palestinian state on all of historic Palestine and return of refugees -- --   -- -- -- 12.5        
Prefer another solution   15.7   --              
I don't know 5.4 6.1 3.6
3.8
6.2 3.9 3.9 2.3 3.8 2.4 1.1
No answer     1.2
1.5
2.5 0.9 0.9 0.8 2.3 1.3 0.5

Some believe that the "Two - State Formula" is the best solution for the Israeli - Palestinian conflict while others believe that the historical Palestine cannot be divided into two states and therefore the best solution would be a "Bi-National State" in all of Palestine where Palestinians and Israelis enjoy equal rights, which of these two solutions would you prefer? (Source: JMCC Poll) 

 
West Bank (12/99) West Bank (12/00) West Bank (4/01)
West Bank (6/01)
West Bank (9/01) West Bank (9/01) West Bank (3/02) West Bank (9/02) West Bank (12/02) West Bank (4/03) West Bank (10/03)
n=761   n=759
n=761
n=758 n=761     n=760 n=761 n=758
Two states Israeli & Palestinian 46.1 47.0 47.8
47.8
44.5 52.3 36.8 47.2 48.3 59.7 48.4
Bi-national state in all of Palestine 21.4 21.2 23.3
21.0
31.1 25.5 32.6 28.6 26.1 21.2 26.4
Other 12.6   0.4
1.1
  1.4   0.9     1.5
There is no solution 14.5 11.7 16.2
13.4
      12.4     10.0
Palestinian State with one nationality*     5.1
8.3
10.4 11.0 0.3 4.5 10.0 11.2 9.8
Islamic independent state with Jerusalem as its capital*                 3.9    
Islamic State*     1.4
1.4
3.6 3.4 3.9 2.5 4.7 2.8 3.0
Sovereign independent state with Jerusalem as its capital             5.0        
Palestinian state on all of historic Palestine and return of refugees             14.6        
Prefer another solution   12.5   --              
I don't know 5.4 7.6 4.9
5.5
8.3 5.4 4.8 3.0 4.5 3.4 0.5
No answer     0.9
1.5
2.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 2.5 1.7 0.4

 

Some believe that the "Two - State Formula" is the best solution for the Israeli - Palestinian conflict while others believe that the historical Palestine cannot be divided into two states and therefore the best solution would be a "Bi-National State" in all of Palestine where Palestinians and Israelis enjoy equal rights, which of these two solutions would you prefer? (Source: JMCC Poll)
 

 
Gaza Strip (12/99) Gaza Strip (12/00) Gaza Strip (4/01)
Gaza Strip (6/01)
Gaza Strip (9/01) Gaza Strip (12/01) Gaza Strip (3/02) Gaza Strip (9/02) Gaza Strip (12/02) Gaza Strip (4/03) Gaza Strip (10/03)
n=438   n=440
n=440
n=440 n=440     n=440 n=440 n=440
Two states Israeli & Palestinian 46.3 46.8 37.0
46.1
40.25 42.7 49.5 38.6 43.4 38.4 41.1
Bi-national state in all of Palestine 19.2 18.6 27.3
24.3
33.0 31.1 30.0 29.5 26.4 31.8 23.4
Other 16.0   1.8
0.2
  0.9   1.1     0.9
There is no solution 13.2 9.5 12.0
8.2
    0.2 13.0     8.4
Palestinian State with one nationality*     13.4
17.7
19.3 20.2 -- 14.8 13.2 24.8 19.3
Islamic independent state with Jerusalem as its capital*     5.2           8.0    
Islamic State*      
1.4
1.8 3.0 2.7 1.4 4.3 3.6 4.2
Sovereign independent state with Jerusalem as its capital             6.8        
Palestinian state on all of historic Palestine and return of refugees             9.1        
Prefer another solution   21.5   --              
I don't know 5.3 3.9 1.4
0.9
2.5 1.4 0.7 0.9 2.7 0.7 2.0
No answer     1.9
1.2
3.2 0.7 0.9 0.7 2.0 0.7 0.7

The position of PA prime minister has been recently created; do you believe that this step serves the Palestinian people and cause? Or hurts the Palestinian people and cause? Or that it does not serve nor hurt the Palestinian people and cause? (Source: JMCC Poll, April 2003)

Total
West Bank
Gaza
N=1201

N=761

N=440

It serves the Palestinian people and cause.
29.6
31.8
25.7
It hurts the Palestinian people and cause
22.0
20.9
23.9
It does not serve nor hurt the Palestinian people and cause
38.6
36.4
42.3
Don’t Know
8.7
9.5
7.3
No answer
1.1
1.4
0.8

Do you believe that the appointment of Abu Mazen (Mahmoud Abbas) as prime minister in Palestine helps pushing the peace process with Israel forward? Backward? Or will not influence the peace process (Source: JMCC Poll, April 2003)

Total
West Bank
Gaza
N=1201

N=761

N=440

Will assist in pushing the peace process between Israel and Palestine forward.
30.4
31.5
28.4
Will assist in pushing the peace process between Israel and Palestine backward
16.5
17.9
14.1
Will not influence the peace process
44.5
41.3
50.2
Don’t Know
7.4
7.9
6.6
No answer
1.2
1.4
0.7

Do you believe that appointing Abu Mazen (Mahmoud Abbas) as prime minister would assist pushing the current PA reform process forward? Backward? Or this appointment would not have an influence on the current reform process? (Source: JMCC Poll, April 2003)

Total
West Bank
Gaza
N=1201

N=761

N=440

Will assist in pushing the PA reform process forward.
28.7
30.0
26.6
Will assist in pushing the PA reform process backward.
17.4
18.3
15.9
Will not have an influence on the current reform process.
43.2
40.3
48.2
I Don’t Know
9.2
10.0
8.0
No answer
1.5
1.4
1.3

Do you believe that the decision to create a prime minister’s position came from external pressures and influences or as a result of a Palestinian conviction that this is in the interest of the Palestinian people? Or both? (Source: JMCC Poll, April 2003)
Total
West Bank
Gaza
N=1201

N=761

N=440

It came due to external pressures and influences.
67.8
66.9
69.3
It came as a result of a Palestinian conviction that it is in the interest of the Palestinian people.
6.2
5.8
6.8
Both, due to external pressures and as a result of Palestinian 1conviction that it is in the interest of the Palestinian people.
19.2
19.6
18.6
I don’t know
5.7
6.3
4.8
No answer
1.1
1.4
0.5

 


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