The Baghdad Pact
(February 4, 1955)
Pact of Mutual Cooperation Between the Kingdom of Iraq, the Republic of Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Dominion of Pakistan, and the Kingdom of Iran(1)
Whereas the friendly and brotherly relations existing between Iraq and Turkey are in constant progress, and in order to complement the contents of the Treaty of Friendship and Good Neighbourhood concluded between His Majesty the King of Iraq and his Excellency the President of the Turkish Republic signed in Ankara on March 29, 1946,(2) which recognised the fact that peace and security between the two countries is an integral part of the peace and security of all the nations of the world and in particular the nations of the Middle East, and that it is the basis for their foreign policies;
Whereas article 11 of the Treaty of Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation between the Arab League States provides that no provision of that treaty shall in any way affect, or is designed to affect, any of the rights and obligations accruing to the Contracting Parties from the United Nations Charter;
And having realised the great responsibilities borne by them in their capacity as members of the United Nations concerned with the maintenance of peace and security in the Middle East region which necessitate taking the required measures in accordance with article 51 of the United Nations Charter;
They have been fully convinced of the necessity of concluding a pact fulfilling these aims, and for that purpose have appointed as their plenipotentiaries . . . who having communicated their full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed as follows:-
Consistent with article 51 of the United Nations Charter the High Contracting Parties will co-operate for their security and defence. Such measures as they agree to take to give effect to this co-operation may form the subject of special agreements with each other.
In order to ensure the realization and effect application of the co-operation provided for in article 1 above, the competent authorities of the High Contracting Parties will determine the measures to be taken as soon as the present pact enters into force. These measures will become operative as soon as they have been approved by the Governments of the High Contracting Parties.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to refrain from any interference whatsoever in each other's internal affairs. They will settle any dispute between themselves in a peaceful way in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
The High Contracting Parties declare that the dispositions of the present pact are not in contradiction with any of the international obligations contracted by either of them with any third State or States. They do not derogate from and cannot be interpreted as derogating from, the said international obligations. The High Contracting Parties undertake not to enter into any international obligation incompatible with the present pact.
This pact shall be open for accession to any member of the Arab League or any other State actively concerned with the security and peace in this region and which is fully recognized by both of the High Contracting Parties. Accession shall come into force from the date of which the instrument of accession of the State concerned is deposited with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Iraq.
Any acceding State party to the present pact may conclude special agreements, in accordance with article 1, with one or more States parties to the present pact. The competent authority of any acceding State may determine measures in accordance with article 2. These a measures will become operative as soon as they have been approved by the Governments of the parties concerned.
A Permanent Council at ministerial level will be set up to function within the framework of the purposes of this pact when at least four Powers become parties to the pact.
The Council will draw up its own rules of procedure.
This pact remains in force for a period of five years renewable for other five-year periods. Any Contracting Party may withdraw from the pact by notifying the other parties in writing of its desire to do so six months before the expiration of any of the above-mentioned periods, in which case the pact remains valid for the other parties.
This pact shall be ratified by the contracting parties and ratifications shall be exchanged at Ankara as soon as possible. Thereafter it shall come into force from the date of the exchange of ratifications.
In witness whereof, the said plenipotentiaries have signed the present pact in Arabic, Turkish and English, all three texts being equally authentic except in the case of doubt when the English text shall prevail.
Done in duplicate at Bagdad this second day of Rajab 1374 Hijri corresponding to the twenty-fourth day of February 1955.
(1) British Misc. No. 5 (1955), Cmd. 9429. Signed by Iraq and Turkey at Baghdad, Feb. 24, 1955; ratifications exchanged, Apr. 15, 1955; adhered to by U.K. (Apr. 5, 1955), by Pakistan (Sept. 23, 1955); by Iran (Oct. 23, 1955). For statements on United States attitude toward the Baghdad Pact, see Department of State Bulletin, Mar. 1, 1954, pp. 327-328, Oct. 3, 1955, p. 534; Get. 24, 1955, p. 653; Nov. 28, 1955, p. 895. On invitation, the United States sent observers (Ambassador Waldemar Gallman and Admiral John H. Cassady) to the first meeting of the Baghdad Pact Council, Baghdad, Nov. 21-22, 1955 (ibid., Dec. 5, 1955, p. 926, and Jan. 2, 1956, p. 16). For communique on the first meeting, see Ibid., pp. 16-18. Back
Sources: The Avalon Project and American Foreign Policy, 1950-1955, Basic Documents, Vol. 1, Department of State Publication 6446, General Foreign Policy Series 117, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1957.