FBI Hate Crime Statistics 2000
A total of 11,690 law enforcement agencies in 48 states
and the District of Columbia reported 8,063 bias-motivated criminal
incidents (8,055 single-bias and 8 multiple-bias incidents) to the FBI
in 2000. The incidents consisted of 9,430 separate offenses, 9,924 victims,
and 7,530 known distinguishable offenders. According to the data collected,
53.8 percent of the 8,055 single-bias incidents were motivated by racial
bias, 18.3 percent by religious bias, 16.1 percent by sexual-orientation
bias, 11.3 percent by ethnicity/national origin bias, and 0.5 percent
by disability and multiple biases.
- Incidents and Offenses
Incidents and Offenses
For Hate Crime Data Collection Program purposes, the
term single-bias incident refers to any hate crime incident in which
all offenses involved in the incident were perpetrated as a result of
the same bias motivation. A multiple-bias incident is any hate crime
incident in which two or more of the offenses were committed as a result
of two or more bias motivations. In 2000, 65.0 percent of the 9,430
hate crime offenses reported were attributed to crimes against persons.
Crimes against property made up 34.4 percent of the total, and crimes
against society composed 0.6 percent.
As in previous years, intimidation was the most frequently
reported hate crime, accounting for 34.9 percent of the total hate crime
offenses reported. Destruction/damage/vandalism of property made up
29.3 percent of the total; simple assault, 17.1 percent; and aggravated
assault, 12.6 percent. The remaining offenses accounted for 6.1 percent.
Within the offense type crimes against persons, intimidation
was the most frequently reported offense; 73.5 percent of intimidation
offenses with a known offender were committed by white offenders, and
11.2 percent were committed by black offenders. Additionally for intimidation
offenses, race was unknown for 11.4 percent of the known offenders.
Further, within the offense type crimes against property, destruction
damage/vandalism was the most frequently reported offense; 57.2 percent
of destruction/damage/vandalism of property with a known offender were
committed by white offenders and 8.9 percent by black offenders. Race
was unknown for 30.0 percent of the known offenders involved in destruction/damage/vandalism.
In 2000, 19 hate-motivated murders were reported to
the national UCR Program by participating law enforcement agencies.
Of this total, 10 of the murders were motivated by racial bias, 6 by
ethnicity/national origin bias, 2 by sexual-orientation bias, and 1
by religious bias.
According to the data received for racially-motivated
single-bias incidents, there were 3,409 antiblack offenses committed;
2,346 of these were committed by known offenders. Of the 2,346 anti-black
offenses where the offender was known, 1,981offenses involved white
offenders. Of the 1,050 anti-white offenses, 888 offenses were committed
by known offenders. Of these 888 offenses, 527 offenses involved black
The term victim throughout this publication refers
to a person, business, institution, or society as a whole, unless otherwise
specified. Data reported to the national UCR Program in 2000 showed
that victims of racial bias accounted for 54.5 percent of all single-bias
hate crime victims in 2000. Victims of religious bias comprised 17.2
percent of the single-bias victim total; victims of sexual orientation
bias, 15.7 percent; victims of ethnicity national origin bias, 12.3
percent; and victims of disability bias, less than one-half of 1 percent.
By specific bias motivation, anti-black accounted for 65.5 percent of
the victims of racial bias, anti-Jewish bias represented 74.7 percent
of victims of religious bias, anti-male homosexual bias composed 68.0
percent of those who were victims of sexual-orientation bias, anti-Hispanic
bias made up 62.7 percent of the victim total for ethnicity/national-origin
bias, and antiphysical disability accounted for 55.6 percent of victims
of disability-bias crimes.
Of the total 9,924 victims, 61.8 percent fell victim
to crimes against persons; 37.6 percent, crimes against property; and
0.6 percent, crimes against society.
By victim type, 79.4 percent of the victims of the
8,055 single-bias incidents were persons; 3.7 percent, society/public;
3.4 percent, religious organizations; 3.3 percent, business/financial
institutions; and 2.7 percent, government. The remaining 7.5 percent
of the victim types were other/unknown/multiple.
A breakdown of the 9,430 offenses by victim type showed
that 82.1 percent were committed against individuals, 3.3 percent were
against society/public, 3.1 percent against business/financial institutions,
3.0 percent against religious organizations, and 2.4 percent against
government. The remaining 6.1 percent were committed against other/known/multiple.
For the purposes of the Hate Crime Data Collection
Program, the term known offender does not imply that the identity of
the suspect is known, but only that an attribute of the suspect is identified
which distinguishes him/her from an unknown offender. The attribute
referred to in this publication is the offender's suspected race.
Law enforcement agencies in 2000 reported a total
of 7,530 known offenders were associated with the 8,063 incidents. By
known offender's race, 64.4 percent were white, 18.7 percent were black,
1.4 percent were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.6 percent were American
Indian/Alaskan Native. Further, 5.1 percent were multiracial, and the
race of 9.7 percent was unknown.
The total number of offenders is 7,530. Since some
individuals committed more than one offense, 7,872 is actually the number
of offenses committed by known offenders. The number of offenses that
is committed by individuals who committed more than one offense is 342.
The number of offenders who committed more than one offense is 326.
The percentage of offenses committed by an individual more than once
and the percent of offenders that committed more than one offense is
the same, 4.3.
Out of the total 9,430 offenses, 83.5 percent were
committed by known offenders; the remaining 16.5 percent of offenders
are unknown. Known offenders who were involved in more than one offense
committed 4.3 percent of the total offenses. Within the offense type
of crime against person, intimidation accounted for 39.3 percent of
the offenses in this category that were committed by known offenders.
Further, destruction/damage/vandalism accounted for 65.9 percent of
the crimes against property committed by known offenders.
Data contributed in 2000 show that the highest percent
of reported hate crime incidents, 32.1 percent, occurred in/on residential
properties. Incidents committed on highways/roads/alleys/streets accounted
for 17.9 percent of the total, 11.4 percent took place in schools and
colleges, and 10.4 percent occurred at other/unknown locations. The
remaining 28.2 percent of incidents were widely distributed among various