In April 1996, the Senate and House passed S.735 - the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act - which implemented certain strictures with regard to habeus corpus, mandatory victim restitution in terrorism cases and set the jurisdiction for lawsuits against terrorist states. The bill was designed in the wake of terrorist attacks on the U.S. homeland in 1993 (World Trade Center) and 1995 (Oklahoma City). President Clinton signed the bill into law on April 24, 1996 (Public Law No. 104-132).
To deter terrorism, provide justice for victims, provide for an effective death penalty, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the ‘Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996’.
SEC. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
The table of contents of this Act is as follows:
Sec. 1. Short title.
Sec. 2. Table of contents.
TITLE I--HABEAS CORPUS REFORM
Sec. 101. Filing deadlines.
Sec. 102. Appeal.
Sec. 103. Amendment of Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure.
Sec. 104. Section 2254 amendments.
Sec. 105. Section 2255 amendments.
Sec. 106. Limits on second or successive applications.
Sec. 107. Death penalty litigation procedures.
Sec. 108. Technical amendment.
TITLE II--JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS
Subtitle A--Mandatory Victim Restitution
Sec. 201. Short title.
Sec. 202. Order of restitution.
Sec. 203. Conditions of probation.
Sec. 204. Mandatory restitution.
Sec. 205. Order of restitution to victims of other crimes.
Sec. 206. Procedure for issuance of restitution order.
Sec. 207. Procedure for enforcement of fine or restitution order.
Sec. 208. Instruction to Sentencing Commission.
Sec. 209. Justice Department regulations.
Sec. 210. Special assessments on convicted persons.
Sec. 211. Effective date.
Subtitle B--Jurisdiction for Lawsuits Against Terrorist States
Sec. 221. Jurisdiction for lawsuits against terrorist states.
Subtitle C--Assistance to Victims of Terrorism
Sec. 231. Short title.
Sec. 232. Victims of Terrorism Act.
Sec. 233. Compensation of victims of terrorism.
Sec. 234. Crime victims fund.
Sec. 235. Closed circuit televised court proceedings for victims of crime.
Sec. 236. Technical correction.
TITLE III--INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM PROHIBITIONS
Subtitle A--Prohibition on International Terrorist Fundraising
Sec. 301. Findings and purpose.
Sec. 302. Designation of foreign terrorist organizations.
Sec. 303. Prohibition on terrorist fundraising.
Subtitle B--Prohibition on Assistance to Terrorist States
Sec. 321. Financial transactions with terrorists.
Sec. 322. Foreign air travel safety.
Sec. 323. Modification of material support provision.
Sec. 324. Findings.
Sec. 325. Prohibition on assistance to countries that aid terrorist states.
Sec. 326. Prohibition on assistance to countries that provide military equipment to terrorist states.
Sec. 327. Opposition to assistance by international financial institutions to terrorist states.
Sec. 328. Antiterrorism assistance.
Sec. 329. Definition of assistance.
Sec. 330. Prohibition on assistance under Arms Export Control Act for countries not cooperating fully with United States antiterrorism efforts.
TITLE IV--TERRORIST AND CRIMINAL ALIEN REMOVAL AND EXCLUSION
Subtitle A--Removal of Alien Terrorists
Sec. 401. Alien terrorist removal.
Subtitle B--Exclusion of Members and Representatives of Terrorist Organizations
Sec. 411. Exclusion of alien terrorists.
Sec. 412. Waiver authority concerning notice of denial of application for visas.
Sec. 413. Denial of other relief for alien terrorists.
Sec. 414. Exclusion of aliens who have not been inspected and admitted.
Subtitle C--Modification to Asylum Procedures
Sec. 421. Denial of asylum to alien terrorists.
Sec. 422. Inspection and exclusion by immigration officers.
Sec. 423. Judicial review.
Subtitle D--Criminal Alien Procedural Improvements
Sec. 431. Access to certain confidential immigration and naturalization files through court order.
Sec. 432. Criminal alien identification system.
Sec. 433. Establishing certain alien smuggling-related crimes as RICO-predicate offenses.
Sec. 434. Authority for alien smuggling investigations.
Sec. 435. Expansion of criteria for deportation for crimes of moral turpitude.
Sec. 436. Miscellaneous provisions.
Sec. 437. Interior repatriation program.
Sec. 438. Deportation of nonviolent offenders prior to completion of sentence of imprisonment.
Sec. 439. Authorizing State and local law enforcement officials to arrest and detain certain illegal aliens.
Sec. 440. Criminal alien removal.
Sec. 441. Limitation on collateral attacks on underlying deportation order.
Sec. 442. Deportation procedures for certain criminal aliens who are not permanent residents.
Sec. 443. Extradition of aliens.
TITLE V--NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS RESTRICTIONS
Subtitle A--Nuclear Materials
Sec. 501. Findings and purpose.
Sec. 502. Expansion of scope and jurisdictional bases of nuclear materials prohibitions.
Sec. 503. Report to Congress on thefts of explosive materials from armories.
Subtitle B--Biological Weapons Restrictions
Sec. 511. Enhanced penalties and control of biological agents.
Subtitle C--Chemical Weapons Restrictions
Sec. 521. Chemical weapons of mass destruction; study of facility for training and evaluation of personnel who respond to use of chemical or biological weapons in urban and suburban areas.
TITLE VI--IMPLEMENTATION OF PLASTIC EXPLOSIVES CONVENTION
Sec. 601. Findings and purposes.
Sec. 602. Definitions.
Sec. 603. Requirement of detection agents for plastic explosives.
Sec. 604. Criminal sanctions.
Sec. 605. Exceptions.
Sec. 606. Seizure and forfeiture of plastic explosives.
Sec. 607. Effective date.
TITLE VII--CRIMINAL LAW MODIFICATIONS TO COUNTER TERRORISM
Subtitle A--Crimes and Penalties
Sec. 701. Increased penalty for conspiracies involving explosives.
Sec. 702. Acts of terrorism transcending national boundaries.
Sec. 703. Expansion of provision relating to destruction or injury of property within special maritime and territorial jurisdiction.
Sec. 704. Conspiracy to harm people and property overseas.
Sec. 705. Increased penalties for certain terrorism crimes.
Sec. 706. Mandatory penalty for transferring an explosive material knowing that it will be used to commit a crime of violence.
Sec. 707. Possession of stolen explosives prohibited.
Sec. 708. Enhanced penalties for use of explosives or arson crimes.
Sec. 709. Determination of constitutionality of restricting the dissemination of bomb-making instructional materials.
Subtitle B--Criminal Procedures
Sec. 721. Clarification and extension of criminal jurisdiction over certain terrorism offenses overseas.
Sec. 722. Clarification of maritime violence jurisdiction.
Sec. 723. Increased and alternate conspiracy penalties for terrorism offenses.
Sec. 724. Clarification of Federal jurisdiction over bomb threats.
Sec. 725. Expansion and modification of weapons of mass destruction statute.
Sec. 726. Addition of terrorism offenses to the money laundering statute.
Sec. 727. Protection of Federal employees; protection of current or former officials, officers, or employees of the United States.
Sec. 728. Death penalty aggravating factor.
Sec. 729. Detention hearing.
Sec. 730. Directions to Sentencing Commission.
Sec. 731. Exclusion of certain types of information from definitions.
Sec. 732. Marking, rendering inert, and licensing of explosive materials.
TITLE VIII--ASSISTANCE TO LAW ENFORCEMENT
Subtitle A--Resources and Security
Sec. 801. Overseas law enforcement training activities.
Sec. 802. Sense of Congress.
Sec. 803. Protection of Federal Government buildings in the District of Columbia.
Sec. 804. Requirement to preserve record evidence.
Sec. 805. Deterrent against terrorist activity damaging a Federal interest computer.
Sec. 806. Commission on the Advancement of Federal Law Enforcement.
Sec. 807. Combatting international counterfeiting of United States currency.
Sec. 808. Compilation of statistics relating to intimidation of Government employees.
Sec. 809. Assessing and reducing the threat to law enforcement officers from the criminal use of firearms and ammunition.
Sec. 810. Study and report on electronic surveillance.
Subtitle B--Funding Authorizations for Law Enforcement
Sec. 811. Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Sec. 812. United States Customs Service.
Sec. 813. Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Sec. 814. Drug Enforcement Administration.
Sec. 815. Department of Justice.
Sec. 816. Department of the Treasury.
Sec. 817. United States Park Police.
Sec. 818. The Judiciary.
Sec. 819. Local firefighter and emergency services training.
Sec. 820. Assistance to foreign countries to procure explosive detection devices and other counterterrorism technology.
Sec. 821. Research and development to support counterterrorism technologies.
Sec. 822. Grants to State and local law enforcement for training and equipment.
Sec. 823. Funding source.
Sec. 901. Expansion of territorial sea.
Sec. 902. Proof of citizenship.
Sec. 903. Representation fees in criminal cases.
Sec. 904. Severability.
Sources: Library of Congress