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American Polls:
Attitudes Toward the Middle East

(1961 - Present)


American Polls: Table of Contents | Sympathy Toward Israel/Palestinians | Jerusalem


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Please indicate if you have a very favorable, somewhat favorable, somewhat unfavorable, or very unfavorable opinion of each individual, group, or country listed below (The Israel Project, May 2-4, 2014) All Numbers Reflect %.

  Total favorable Total unfavorable
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry 
40
41
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu 
43
24
Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas
11
52
Hamas Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh
6
46

Favorable Opinion (Gallup) All Numbers Reflect %.

  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Israel 
67
68
71
66
72
Egypt 
58
40
47
40
45
Saudi Arabia 
35
37
42
36
35
Libya 
--
--
25
20
19
Iraq 
23
25
24
19
16
Palestinian Authority
20
19
19
15
19
Syria 
--
--
17
14
13
Iran 
10
11
10
9
12

Favorability of Nations Trend (Gallup, The Israel Project)

Israel

Very favorable

Mostly favorable

Mostly Unfavorable

Very Unfavorable

No Opinion

Total Favorable

Total Unfavorable

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Avg All Polls
18
44
21
8
9
62
29
May 2014
--
--
--
--
--
49
27
2014 Feb
26
46
16
7
5
72
23
2013 Feb
25
41
21
8
5
66
29
2012 Feb  
29
42
17
7
4
71
24
2011 Feb  
24
44
20
7
6
68
27
2010 Feb
22
45
19
6
8
67
25
2009 Feb
21
42
21
8
7
63
29
2008 Feb
23
48
18
7
5
71
25
2007 Feb
22
41
22
8
7
63
30
2006 Feb
21
47
18
5
9
68
23
2005 Feb
19
50
20
5
6
69
25
2004 Feb
14
45
25
10
6
59
35

2003 Feb

22

42

23

6

7

64

29

2002 Feb

16

42

25

10

7

58

35

2001 Feb

18

45

20

12

5

63

32

2000 Mar

16

46

20

8

10

62

28

2000 Jan

11

43

21

7

18

54

28

1999 May

15

53

19

6

7

68

25

1999 Feb

18

48

16

7

11

66

23

1996 Mar

17

45

18

11

9

62

29

1992 Feb

12

36

27

16

9

48

43

1991 Nov

11

36

26

11

16

47

37

1991 Sep

11

45

25

9

10

56

34

1991 Aug

15

47

19

6

12

62

25

1991 Mar

20

49

16

7

8

69

23

1991 Jan

28

51

10

3

8

79

13

1989 Aug

11

34

29

16

10

45

45

1989 Feb

8

41

25

13

13

49

38

The Palestinian Authority

Very favorable

Mostly Favorable

Mostly Unfavorable

Very Unfavorable

No Opinion

Total
Favorable

Total Unfavorable

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Avg All Polls
2
15
44
27
12
17
71
2014 May 2-4          
9
54
2014 Feb 6-9
3
16
39
27
15
19
66
2013 Feb 7-10 
3
12
47
30
8
15
77
2012 Feb 2-5 
3
16
44
28
9
19
72
2011 Feb 2-5 
3
16
45
25
11
19
70
2010 Feb 1-3 
3
17
44
26
10
20
70
2009 Feb 9-12
1
14
43
30
12
15
73
2008 Feb 11-14
1
13
47
28
11
14
75
2006 Feb 6-9
1
10
49
29
10
11
78
2005 Feb 7-10
3
24
43
19
11
27
62
2004 Feb 9-12
2
13
44
32
9
15
76

2003 Feb 3-6

1

12

44

29

14

13

73

2002 Feb 4-6

3

11

44

32

10

14

76

2001 Feb 1-4

4

18

39

24

15

22

63

2000 Jan 25-26

3

18

36

16

27

21

52

^ Asked of half sample

 

Egypt

Very
favor-
able

Mostly
favor-
able

Mostly
un-
favor-
able

Very
un-
favor-
able

No
opin-
ion

Total
favor-
able

Total
unfavor-
able

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Avg All Polls
16
48
24
7
17
56
31
2014 May 2-4          
19
53
2014 Feb 6-9
9
36
33
12
10
45
45
2013 Feb 7-10
9
31
36
17
7
40
53
2012 Feb 2-5
5
42
36
11
7
47
47
2011 Feb 2-5
4
36
37
13
10
40
50
2010 Feb 1-2
8
50
24
5
14
58
29
2009 Feb 9-12
8
51
22
5
14
59
27
2008 Feb 11-14
9
53
21
5
13
62
26
2006 Feb 6-9
8
50
22
5
14
58
27
2004 Feb 9-12
7
51
25
7
10
58
32

2003 Feb 3-6

6

50

20

5

19

56

25

2002 Feb 4-6

7

47

29

5

12

54

34

2001 Feb 1-4

11

54

19

4

12

65

23

1996 Mar 8-10

10

48

19

5

17

58

24

1991 Aug 8-11

9

54

15

5

17

63

20

1991 Mar 14-17

11

55

14

3

17

66

17

1991 Jan 30-Feb 2

10

56

12

3

19

66

15

Iran

Very
favor-
able

Mostly
favor-
able

Mostly
un-
favor-
able

Very
un-
favor-
able

No
opin-
ion

Total
favor-
able

Total
unfavor-
able

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Avg All Polls
3
9
40
43
6
10
84
2014 May 2-4          
7
73
2014 Feb 6-9
2
10
42
42
4
12
84
2013 Feb 7-10
2
7
39
48
4
9
87

2012 Feb 2-5

2
8
35
52
4
10
87
2011 Feb 2-5
2
9
42
43
4
11
85
2010 Feb 1-3
1
9
39
46
4
10
85
2009 Feb 9-12
2
10
38
42
7
12
80
2008 Feb 11-14
1
7
43
45
4
8
88
2006 Feb 6-9
1
6
40
46
6
7
86
2004 Feb 9-12
3
14
46
31
6
17
77

2003 Feb 3-6

2

11

48

29

10

13

77

2002 Feb 4-6

2

9

46

38

5

11

84

2001 Feb 1-4

2

10

45

38

5

12

83

1996 Mar 8-10

1

5

38

46

10

6

84

1991 Aug 8-11

1

12

44

35

9

13

79

1991 Mar 14-17

3

11

41

35

10

14

76

1991 Jan 30-Feb 2

2

11

39

40

8

13

79

1989 Aug 10-13

1

4

27

62

6

5

89

1989 Feb 28-Mar 2

1

4

27

62

6

5

89

Iraq

Very
favor-
able

Mostly
favor-
able

Mostly
un-
favor-
able

Very
un-
favor-
able

No
opin-
ion

Total
favor-
able

Total
unfavor-
able

Avg All Polls
2
7
33
52
6
9
86
2014 May 2-4          
10
70
2008 Feb 11-14
3
17
44
33
3
20
77
2006 Feb 6-9
3
18
39
36
5
21
75
2004 Feb 9-12
4
17
39
35
5
21
74

2003 Feb 3-6

1

4

33

57

5

5

90

2002 Feb 4-6

2

4

39

49

6

6

88

2001 Feb 1-4 ^

2

7

34

51

6

9

85

2000 Nov 13-15

2

4

35

53

6

6

88

1999 May 7-9

1

4

38

53

4

5

91

1999 Feb 8-9

2

5

27

60

6

7

87

1996 Mar 8-10

1

5

34

52

8

6

86

1992 Feb 6-9

1

3

30

62

4

4

92

1991 Aug 8-11

1

6

32

54

7

7

86

1991 Mar 14-17

2

5

26

62

5

7

88

1991 Jan 30-Feb 2

*

3

17

73

7

3

90

Libya

Very
favor-
able

Mostly
favor-
able

Mostly
un-
favor-
able

Very
un-
favor-
able

No
opin-
ion

Total
favor-
able

Total
unfavor-
able

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Avg All Polls
2
16
41
24
16
18
65
2006 Feb 6-9
2
20
42
16
20
22
58
2004 Feb 9-12
2
23
43
20
12
25
63

2003 Feb 3-6

1

17

39

24

19

18

63

2002 Feb 4-6

2

13

41

27

17

15

68

2001 Feb 1-4

2

9

40

35

14

11

75

Saudi Arabia

Very
favor-
able

Mostly
favor-
able

Mostly
un-
favor-
able

Very
un-
favor-
able

No
opin-
ion

Total
favor-
able

Total
unfavor-
able

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Avg All Polls
5
31
38
18
8
36
56
2008 Feb 11-14
3
28
43
18
8
31
61
2006 Feb 6-9
3
28
44
18
7
31
62
2004 Feb 9-12
3
25
47
19
6
28
66

2003 Feb 3-6

3

27

41

20

9

30

61

2002 Feb 4-6

4

23

42

22

9

27

64

2001 Feb 1-4

7

40

28

18

7

47

46

1991 Aug 8-11

11

45

21

12

11

56

33

Kuwait

Very
favor-
able

Mostly
favor-
able

Mostly
un-
favor-
able

Very
un-
favor-
able

No
opin-
ion

Total
favor-
able

Total
unfavor-
able

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

2003 Feb 3-6

6

41

30

12

11

47

42

* Less than 0.5%
^ Asked of half sample

Do you associate Israeli political leaders or Palestinian political leaders more with each phrase:
              (The Israel Project National Survey, January 10-12, 2009)

 
Israeli Leaders
Palestinian Leaders
Both
Neither
Don't Know
Wants peace & working for it
48%
5%
9%
27%
12%
Is responsible for the violence
11%
55%
23%
5%
6%
Works to minimize civilian casualties
47%
7%
4%
23%
19%
Wants to defend their people, not hurt others
54%
8%
11%
17%
9%

What is the top international threat?* *Not exact question wording
              (Pew Research Center, January 7-11, 2009)

 
Major Threat
Minor Threat
Not a Threat
Islamic extremist groups
77%
15%
4%
Iran's nuclear program
65%
23%
6%
North Korea's nuclear program
53%
32%
8%
Pakistan's political instability
47%
37%
8%
China's emerging power
46%
36%
13%
Israeli-Palestinian conflict
45%
40%
9%
Russia's tensions with neighbors
37%
48%
8%

Do the following groups or nations generally have more moderate views or more extremist views?
               (The Israel Project National Survey, March 18-20, 2008)

IRAN
Very extreme
60%
Somewhat extreme
23%
Moderate
12%
Don't know/Refused to answer
4%
HAMAS
Very extreme
52%
Somewhat extreme
20%
Moderate
10%
Don't know/Refused to answer
18%

HEZBOLLAH
Very extreme
52%
Somewhat extreme
13%
Moderate
10%
Don't know/Refused to answer
26%

PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY
Very extreme
32%
Somewhat extreme
35%
Moderate
21%
Don't know/Refused to answer
11%

ISRAEL

Very extreme
13%
Somewhat extreme
26%
Moderate
54%
Don't know/Refused to answer
7%

Which ONE of the following do you believe is the most important reason that Islamic fundamentalists hate the United States?
               (Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research, The Israel Project, December 2007)

US Support for Israel
28%
US Judeo-Christian beliefs
19%
They Believe the US is morally corrupt
19%
US policies towards the Arab World
14%
US role in the Iraq war
12%

Please tell me which statement comes closer to your own view... (The Israel Project National Survey, January 2007)

1. Solving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is important to solving issues in Iraq
2. Challenges in Iraq will not be solved by solving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

1 Strongly 20%
1 8%
2 Strongly 46%
2 14%

Please tell me which statement comes closer to your own view... (The Israel Project National Survey, January 2007)

1. It is important to create a Palestinian state now
2. There should not be a Palestinian state until Palestinian leaders end the terror and recognize Israel's right to exist

1 Strongly 17%
1 8%
2 Strongly 47%
2 13%

Please tell me which statement comes closer to your own view...(The Israel Project National Survey, January 2007)

1. Palestinians deserve a state where they are today
2. There are more than twenty-one Arab countries and it makes more sense to relocate Palestinians to one of them

1 Strongly 39%
1 23%
2 Strongly 14%
2 6%

Is solving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict important to solving the challenges in Iraq? (POS, January 2007)

Important to solving Issues in Iraq 28%
Iraq challenges will not be solved 60%

Now, I'd like to rate your feelings towards some people and organizations, with onew hundred meaning a VERY WAR, FAVORABLE feeling; zero meaning a VERY COLD, UNFAVORABLE feeling; and fifty meaning not particularly warm or cold. You can use any number from zero to one hundred, tghe higher the number the more favorable your feelings are toward that person or organization. The word is Israel. (Greenberg Quinlan Rosner)

  7/18/06 7/20/06 7/27/06 8/2/06 9/11/06
Warm 45% 47% 53% 53% 47%
Cool 24% 23% 20% 19% 20%

Thinking about the ongoing conflict between Israel and the Palestinians in the Middle East, please tell me whether, in general, you consider yourself to be... (Public Opinion Strategies, January 18-21, 2007)

Strong supporter of Israel
26%
Supporter of Israel
24%
Supporter of the Palestinians
6%
Strong supporter of the Palestinans
2%
Hard Neither
19%
Don't know
6%
Refused
3%

Please tell me which statement comes closer to your own view... Solving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is important to solving issues in Iraq or Challenges in Iraq will not be solved by solving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. (Public Opinion Strategies, January 18-21, 2007)

STRONGLY / IMPORTANT TO SOLVING ISSUES IN IRAQ
20%
NOT-SO-STRONGLY / IMPORTANT TO SOLVING ISSUES IN IRAQ
8%
NOT-SO-STRONGLY / IRAQ CHALLENGES WILL NOT BE SOLVED
15%
STRONGLY / IRAQ CHALLENGES WILL NOT BE SOLVED
46%
Don't know
10%
Refused
2%

Please tell me which statement comes closer to your own view...It is important to create a Palestinian state now or There should not be a Palestinian state until Palestinian leaders end the terror and recognize Israel’s right to exist (Public Opinion Strategies, January 18-21, 2007)

STRONGLY / IMPORTANT TO CREATE A PALESTINIAN STATE NOW
17%
NOT-SO-STRONGLY /IMPORTANT TO CREATE A PALESTINIAN STATE NOW
7%
NOT-SO-STRONGLY / SHOULD NOT BE A PALESTINIAN STATE
13%
STRONGLY / SHOULD NOT BE A PALESTINIAN STATE
47%
Don't know
12%
Refused
3%

Please tell me which statement comes closer to your own view...The bigger cause of violence in the Middle East is the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians or bigger cause of violence in the Middle East is the conflict between moderates and extremists, across a number of countries and groups (Public Opinion Strategies, January 18-21, 2007)

STRONGLY / ISRAEL - PALESTINIANS
13%
NOT-SO-STRONGLY /ISRAEL - PALESTINIANS
6%
NOT-SO-STRONGLY / MODERATES - EXTREMISTS
14%
STRONGLY / MODERATES - EXTREMISTS
57%
Don't know
9%
Refused
2%

For each of the following countries, please say whether you consider it an ally of the United States, friendly but not an ally, unfriendly, or an enemy of the United States. (Opinion Research Corporation/CNN, 12/16-12/19/06)

 
Ally
Friendly
Unfriendly
Enemy
Israel
42%
39%
8%
5%
Saudi Arabia
18%
40%
18%
18%
Iran
4%
14%
29%
48%
Syria
8%
23%
29%
28%

As you may know, there are debates about whether the US should have diplomatic talks with countries that are doing things that the US opposes. Please select which position is closer to yours. The US should: (The Worldpublicopinion.org/knowledge Networks Poll, 11/21-29/06)

Not talk to such countries but isolate them so as to pressure them to change their behavior
16%
Be willing to talk with such countries because isolating them often provokes them to increase the behavior the US opposes
82%

As you may know, there are debates about whether the US should have diplomatic talks with countries that are doing things that the US opposes. Please select which position is closer to yours. The US should: (The Worldpublicopinion.org/knowledge Networks Poll, 11/21-29/06)

Talk to such countries because communication increases the chance of finding a mutually agreeable solution
84%
Not talk to such countries because talking to them gives them recognition and effectively rewards their bad behavior
13%

Do you favor or oppose the idea of having a nuclear weapons free zone in the Middle East that would include both Islamic countries and Israel? (The Worldpublicopinion.org/knowledge Networks Poll, 11/21-29/06)

Favor strongly
41%
Favor somewhat
30%
Oppose somewhat
12%
Oppose strongly
9%
No Answer
9%

Currently there is a debate about whether the US government should announce that it has the goal of removing the existing government of another country that it sees as a problem, such as the government of Iran. Some people say that this is a good idea because it creates moral clarity and strengthens opposition to the government both inside and outside that country. Others say it is a bad idea because it violates the principle of national sovereignty and when countries feel threatened they are less cooperative and more likely to use dangerous means to protect themselves. Do you think announcing that the US has the goal of removing an existing government that it sees as a problem, is: (The Worldpublicopinion.org/knowledge Networks Poll, 11/21-29/06)

A good idea
21%
A bad idea
72%

Do you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree that the work of the Israel lobby on Congress and the Bush administration has been a key factor for going to war in Iraq and now confronting Iran? (Zogby International, 10/10-12/06)

Strongly Agree
16%
Somewhat Agree
23%
Somewhat Disagree
18%
Strongly Disagree
22%
Not Sure
22%

Overall, do you agree or disagree that U.S. policy is as fair with the democratic government of Lebanon as it is with the democratic government of Israel? (Zogby International, August 11-15, 2006)

Agree 35%
Disagree 37%
Not sure 28%

How should the United States treat the Hamas-led Palestinian government? (Wall Street Journal, Online poll Feb. 3, 2006)

The U.S. should work with any democratically elected middle-east government
6.5%
Work with Hamas only if it renounces Israel's destruction and disarms
58.3%
Don't work with Hamas under any circumstances
35.2%

 

Regardless of which side you may support in this conflict, has what you have seen, read or heard about this conflict recently given you a more favorable of less favorable impression of Israel? (The Israel Project)

Date
More Favorable
Less Favorable
May 8, 2003
29%
31%
May 29, 2003
34%
27%
July 2003
36%
34%
Aug 2003
28%
34%
Nov 2003
29%
46%
Jan 2004
32%
47%
Mar 17, 2004
35%
37%
Mar 23, 2004
29%
31%
July 2004
31%
38%
Nov 2004
28%
31%
Jan 2005
32%
32%
Aug 2005
45%
24%
Average
32%
34%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Has what you have seen, read or heard about this conflict recently given you a more favorable or less favorable impression of Palestinians? (The Israel Project)

Date
More Favorable
Less Favorable
May 8, 2003
17%
43%
May 29, 2003
15%
46%
July 2003
23%
49%
Aug 2003
10%
55%
Nov 2003
12%
63%
Jan 2004
18%
56%
Mar 17, 2004
10%
57%
Mar 23, 2004
9%
45%
July 2004
18%
51%
Nov 2004
16%
44%
Jan 2005
19%
44%
Aug 2005
25%
39%
Average
16%
49%

I'd like to get your feelings about some countries and governing organizations who have been in the news and what sort of a relationship you feel they have with the United States. I'll read the name of a country or governing organization and I'd like you to rate how much of a friend or foe they are to the U.S. using the feeling thermometer. You can choose any number between 0 and 100. The higher the number, the warmer or more friendly you feel they are to the U.S. The lower the number, the colder or less friendly they are. If we come to a country or governing organization who you haven't heard enough about to form an opinion, you don't need to rate them. Just tell me and we'll move on to the next one. How friendly or unfriendly do you think -- is to the U.S.? (Quinnipiac University)

Date
March 13, 2006
June 12 , 2006
August 28, 2006
November 30, 2006
Canada
70.9
71.4
71.7
73.4
China
41.5
41.6
39.0
44.2
Cuba
27.2
24.4
24.0
24.1
England
76.4
76.0
78.3
78.9
France
45.0
44.5
45.0
44.5
Germany
NA
NA
NA
58.1
India
52.1
54.8
53.4
56.6
Iran
26.7
16.9
13.9
15.5
Iraq
27.1
29.3
27.7
25.9
Israel
61.8
62.9
65.9
68.2
Mexico
54.9
50.1
51.4
51.4
North Korea
19.7
18.4
15.0
13.5
Palestinian Govt
24.6
25.0
22.8
23.8
Russia
47.1
44.3
45.5
46.2
Saudi Arabia
38.2
39.5
28.2
40.4
Syria
NA
NA
21.7
24.3
United Nations
50.6
50.1
49.2
50.4
Venezuela
NA
36.9
35.9
30.9

What one country anywhere in the world do you consider to be America's greatest enemy today? (Gallup)

2/6-9/06

2/7-10/05

2/1-4/01

%

%

%

Iran

31

14

8

Iraq

22

22

38

North Korea/Korea (non-specific)

15

22

2

China

10

10

14

Afghanistan

3

3

*

United States itself

1

2

1

Russia

1

2

6

Saudi Arabia

1

2

4

Syria

1

2

--

France

1

2

--

Cuba

*

*

2

Japan

*

*

1

The Palestinian Authority

*

*

1

Libya

--

*

4

 

 

 

None

1

2

2

Other

6

8

6

No opinion

7

9

11

* Less than 0.5%

We'd now like to rate your feelings toward some organizations and people on a 0-100 scale, where 100 means that you have a very warm, positive feeling toward that particular organization or person, and zero means that you have a very cold, negative feeling. A rating of 50 means that you do not feel particularly warm or cold. You can use any number from zero to 100; the higher the number, the more favorable your feelings are toward that organization or person. (Harris, August 2006)

Mean Score* (based on all responses)
Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert 49
King Abdullah of Jordan 44
Iraqi President Jalal Talabani 37
Lebanese Prime Minister Fouad Siniora 31
Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas 25
Palestinian Authority 23
Hamas 17
Hezbollah 14

*From 100 (most positive) to 0 (most negative).

Do you have a favorable or unfavorable impression of Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon? (ADL, March 18-25, 2005)

Favorable 42%
Unfavorable 22%

Do you have a favorable or unfavorable impression of the current Israeli government? (ADL)

 
1992
1998
2002
2003
2005
Favorable
31%
33%
31%
40%
43%
Unfavorable
46%
34%
43%
33%
26%

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Regardless of what they say publicly, most Arab leaders are committed to the destruction of Israel. (ADL, March 18-25, 2005)

Agree 56%
Disagree 28%

In general, do you believe the American news coverage of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in the Middle East tends to favor the Israelis, the Palestinians, or is it generally balanced? (ADL, March 18-25, 2005)

Israelis 32%
Palestinians 12%
Generally Balanced 41%

Now, as you may know, in protest of Israeli Government policy with respect to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church here in the United States recently voted by an overwhelming margin to begin a phased divestment to withdraw Church funds from certain companies that do business in Israel. Do you support or oppose the action taken by the Presbyterian Church? (The Israel Project, November 7-8, 2004)

Support
35%
Oppose
58%

Next, I'd like to get your overall opinion of some people who were in the news this year. As I read each name, please say if you have a favorable or unfavorable opinion of this person — or if you have never heard of him or her....Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. (Gallup)

 
1/6-8/94*
12/4-6/98
12/28-29/98
5/7-9/99
7/6-9/00
10/25-28/00
2/5-6/02
5/20-22/02
Favorable
23%
24%
35%
26%
27%
18%
17%
7%
Unfavorable
52%
47%
45%
44%
45%
64%
73%
80%
Never heard of
8%
9%
5%
6%
8%
6%
3%
3%
No Opinion
17%
20%
15%
24%
20%
12%
7%
10%

* Asked as PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: It is critical that the next President of the United States support Israel, our democratic ally in the Middle East. (The Israel Project, July 17-19, 2004)

Agree
67% (of which 35% agree strongly)
Disagree
24% (of which 8% disagree strongly)

Now, thinking about the ongoing conflict between Israel and the Palestinians in the Middle East, please tell me whether, in general, you consider yourself to be.. (The Israel Project, July 17-19, 2004)

a strong supporter of Israel

24%

a supporter of Israel
23%
a supporter of the Palestinians
6%
a strong supporter of the Palestinians
3%
Neither, lean Israel
8%
Neither, Lean Palestine
5%
Hard Neither
25%
DK
6%

Now I’d like to read you a list of words and phrases and please tell me for each one whether you believe it describes Israel very well, well, not too well, or not well at all. The (first/next) one is.... (The Israel Project, July 17-19, 2004)

Very Well

Well

Not Too Well

Not Well At All

DK

Is on the front-line in the fight against terrorism

32%

24%

27%

9%

8%

Teaches tolerance and peace in its schools
10%
24%
23%
10%
33%
Shares US principles of freedom and equality
25%
36%
22%
10%
7%
Is one of our strongest allies*
26%
37%
24%
6%
1%
Keeps high moral standards in spite of its difficult condition*
22%
36%
23%
8%
12%

*Asked of partial sample.

Now, thinking into the future, say 25 years from now in the year 2029, do you believe that Israel will still exist as a Jewish nation? (The Israel Project, July 17-19, 2004)

Yes
87%
No
6%

Now I would like to refer to a few values that people often use to characterize the American people. Please select the one you most appreciate and would be pleased to characterize the people of Israel? (Hudson Institute, June 24, 2004)

Democracy
25%
Doing the right thing
21%
Free market economy
20%
Faith in G-d
18%
Entrepreneurial spirit
5%
None of them
3%
Don't know
8%

When you think about the world's nations, which country is in your opinion a true friend of Israel that can be trusted to help Israel even through difficult times? (Hudson Institute, June 24, 2004)

USA
69%
European country
3%
Other country
4%
No such country
18%
Don't know
7%

Some say that the US is helping Israel while others say that it is restricting to Israel. When you sum it up, to what extent do you think Israel should be thankful to the US for its help? (Hudson Institute, June 24, 2004)

Very appreciative
24%
Appreciative
32%
Somewhat appreciative
27%
Not very appreciative
6%
Not appreciative at all
5%
Don't know
7%

I am going to read you a list of possible threats to the vital interests of the United States in the next 10 years. For each one, please tell me if you see this as a critical threat, an important but not critical threat, or not an important threat at all? (Gallup, February 9-12, 2004)

“Critical Threat”

International terrorism
82%
The spread of weapons of mass destruction to unfriendly powers
75%
The conflict between Israel and the Palestinians
58%
Islamic fundamentalism
51%
Large numbers of immigrants entering the United States
50%
The conflict between North Korea and South Korea
48%
Economic competition from low-wage countries
46%
The military power of china
39%
The conflict between India and Pakistan
32%
The conflict between China and Taiwan
23%
The militay power of Russia
18%

How much do you blame the -- [ITEMS ROTATED] -- for the current violence in the Middle East -- a great deal, a moderate amount, not very much, or none at all? (Gallup)

Israelis

Great
deal

Moderate amount

Not very
much

None
at all

No
opinion

2003 Oct 10-12

20%

48

18

10

4

2002 Mar 22-24

26%

46

14

10

4

Palestinians

Great
deal

Moderate amount

Not very
much

None
at all

No
opinion

2003 Oct 10-12

36%

45

12

3

4

2002 Mar 22-24

40%

42

10

4

4

Arab countries in the region

Great
deal

Moderate amount

Not very
much

None
at all

No
opinion

2003 Oct 10-12

34%

44

13

4

5

Which side is responsible for the current violence in the Middle East: the Israelis or the Palestinians? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Israelis
16%
Palestinians
39%
Both
27%
Neither
6%

In your opinion, how serious is Israel about wanting to reach a peace agreement with the Palestinians -- is it very serious, somewhat serious, not very serious, or not at all serious. (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Very serious
25%
Somewhat serious
45%
Not very serious
18%
Not at all serious
12%

Which of the following statements is closest to your own view? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

The Israelis and their leader Ariel Sharon are genuinely interested in reaching a long-term peace agreement with the Palestinians 42%
The real goal of Ariel Sharon and the Israelis is to squeeze the Palestinians into the smallest territory possible 36%

Which of the following statements is closest to your own view? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

The Palestinians and their leader Yasser Arafat are genuinely interested in reaching a long-term peace agreement with Israel 25%
The real goal of Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian leadership is to destroy Israel 57%

Which of the following statements is closest to your own view? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

The U.S. and Israeli government are correct in their decision to stop dealing with Yasser Arafat because he has refused or been unable to stop the terror attacks against Israel. 59%
Yasser Arafat is the duly elected leader of the Palestinian people -- the U.S. and Israel have no choice but to deal with him. 27%

The United States has a special relationship with Israel because the two countries share many common values, including a commitment to freedom and democracy. (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Agree 75% [35% agree strongly]
Disagree 15% [6% disagree strongly]

Israel can be counted on as a strong, loyal US ally. (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Agree
61% [of which 33% strongly]
Disagree
28% [of which 11% disagree strongly]

Which statement is closest to your own view? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

As a world leader trying to bring peace to the Middle East, it is important for the U.S. to work with Arab nations like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, even if it means weakening our strong relationship with Israel. 44%
Israel is America's most loyal ally in the Middle East. The U.S. has a moral and strategic obligation to keep our relationship with Israel strong, even if this means weakening our relationship with the Arab world. 31%

Which statement is closest to your own view? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Peace between the Israelis and the Palestinians will never take place without the continuing leadership and involvement of the U.S. government 45%
It is up to the Palestinians and the Israelis to solve their own problems; any lasting peace agreement between them must be reached with minimal involvement from the U.S. 38%

U.S. is more likely to be targeted for terrorist attacks because of our support for Israel. (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Agree
73% (of which 35% agree strongly)
Disagree
23% (of which 10% disagree strongly)

In your opinion, should the U.S.: (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Continue to support Israel even if it means there will be a greater risk of terrorist attacks against America 62%
Pull back from its support of Israel to minimize the risk of a terrorist attack in this country 31%

In general, do you believe the American news coverage of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in the Middle East tends to favor the Israelis, the Palestinians, or is it generally balanced? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Israelis
28%
Palestinians
8%
Generally balanced
51%

Would you favor or oppose the creation of a Palestinian homeland - and independent state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Favor
60% (34% favor strongly)
Oppose
18% (10% strongly oppose)

Which statement is closest to your own view? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Palestinians deserve their own homeland - an independent state. The peace process will be strengthened by the creation of this state as soon as possible. 45%
Israeli leaders say a Palestinian state should be the final result of a long-term peace agreement and must not be established until all Palestinian violence has stopped. 38%

All in all, considering the costs to the United States versus the benefits to the United States, do you think the war with Iraq was worth fighting or not worth fighting? (Note: This question was asked before the capture of Saddam Hussein by U.S. forces) (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Worth
52%
Not worth
41%

Which statement is closest to your own view? (Source: ADL, December 2003)

The US is more secure after the Iraq war because Saddam Hussein is out of power 43%
The US is less secure after the Iraq war because the war has unleashed a new wave of radical Islamic terrorism and has increased Anti-American sentiment throughout the world. 48%

For each of the following countries, tell me if in your opinion it presents a threat to peace in the world (except for the Israel question which was asked to the entire sample [1,200], the question was asked to 600). (Source: ADL, December, 2003)

North Korea
77%
Iran
76%
Iraq
76%
Afghanistan
65%
Saudi Arabia
62%
Syria
61%
China
54%
Libya
52%
Pakistan
57%
Israel
43%
USA
37%
India
29%
Russia
28%
Somalia
25%
France
22%

Do you have a favorable or unfavorable impression of: (ADL)

 
2003
2005
 
Favorable
Unfavorable
Favorable
Unfavorable
Tony Blair    
66%
12%
Great Britain
73%
8%
Israel
49%
28%
60%
19%
V. Putin    
32%
32%
Russia
42%
22%
Egypt
33%
21%
40%
19%
Jordan
31%
22%
34%
19%
Jacque Chirac    
22%
40%
France
31%
48%
Saudi Royals    
12%
50%
Saudi Arabia
21%
54%
Iran
11%
67%
14%
64%
Palestinian Authority
11%
58%
20%
46%
Syria
9%
46%
11%
46%

Do you think the United States supports Israel: too much, about the right amount, or too little?

Gallup
Too Much
About the Right Amount
Too Little
No Opinion
May 2003 32% 48% 12% 8%
June 2002 43% 40% 10% 7%
April 2002 36% 49% 10% 6%
Mar 2002 38% 48% 11% 3%
Dec 2001 31% 51% 10% 8%
Oct 2001 29% 58% 9% 4%

How well do you think the U.S. government is dealing with the following international problems and issues? Please answer on a scale of 0 to 10 with 0 being very poorly and 10 being very well. (PIPA, March 2003)

PIPA

Negative
(0-4)

Neutral
(5)

Positive
(6-10)

DK/Refsued
Net
Pos-Neg

Mean

March 2003 35% 20% 39% 7% +5 5.04
Feb 2003 38% 23% 33% 6% -4 4.81
Jan 2003 37% 23% 34% 6% -4 4.72
Nov 2002 34% 27% 34% 5% 0 4.96

Here are five foreign policy problems that the US is facing these days. Thinking about the long term, please select the one that you feel is the most important. [order randomized; question repeated with remaining problems until all rated. (PIPA, March 2003)

PIPA

First Response %

Mean Rating
(1=Highest, 5= Lowest)

March 2003 7 3.77
Feb 2003 6 3.96
Jan 2003 12 3.49
Dec 2002 12 3.48
Nov 2002 12 3.29
Sept 2002 17 2.85

How well do you think the U.S. government is handling relations with the following countries? Please answer on a scale of 0 to 10 with 0 being very poorly and 10 being very well. (PIPA, March 2003)

PIPA

Negative
(0-4)

Neutral
(5)

Positive
(6-10)

DK/Refsued
Net
Pos-Neg

Mean

Saudi Arabia            
March 2003 20% 21% 50% 8% +30 5.80
Feb 2003 30% 20% 40% 11% +10 5.28
Jan 2003 30% 22% 37% 10% +7 5.09
Nov 2002 31% 21% 39% 9% +8 5.13
Israel            
March 2003 21% 16% 55% 8% +33 6.00
Feb 2003 23% 19% 48% 10% +25 5.91
Jan 2003 22% 18% 50% 10% +28 5.80
Nov 2002 21% 18% 53% 8% +31 5.95

Please tell me whether you think each of the following nations is a friend of the United States, or not? [ROTATE LIST] SCALE: 1. Is a friend of the United States 2. Is not a friend of the United States 3. (Depends on the issue) 4. (Don’t know) (Fox News, February 25-26, 2003)

 

 
Friend
Not a Friend
(Depends)
(DK)
NET: Friend – Not
Great Britain
90%
4
1
5
+86%
Israel
70%
16
4
10
+54%
Turkey
52%
23
9
16
+29%
Germany
46%
34
9
11
+12%
Egypt
41%
26
9
24
+15%
France
38%
47
7
8
- 9%
Saudi Arabia
30%
49
8
13
-19%
Syria
14%
46
4
36
-32%

Do you have a favorable or unfavorable impression of: (Source: ADL, December 2003)

  Favorable Unfavorable
President W. Bush 59% 36%
Israel Prime Minister Ariel Sharon 36% 31%
PA Chairman Yasser Arafat 9% 66%

Do you agree or disagree? Throughout the world, anti-Semitism has reached its most dangerous levels since the 1930s. (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Agree 40% (of which 22% strongly)
Disagree 46% (of which 16% disagree strongly)

Do you agree or disagree? The US has a moral obligation to combat anti-Semitism in Europe as part of its foreign policy. (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Agree 48% (of which 22% strongly)
Disagree 41% (of which 16% disagree strongly)

Do you agree or disagree? The US has a moral obligation to combat anti-Semitism throughout the world as part of its foreign policy. (Source: ADL, December 2003)

Agree 57% (of which 30% strongly)
Disagree 31% (of which 12% disagree strongly)

Now I would like to know your impression, even if you are not very sure about it. Is it your impression that more countries approve or disapprove of how the US has generally dealt with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, or is it roughly balanced? (PIPA, May 8, 2002)

More approve 18%
More disapprove 43%
Balanced 29%
Don't know 9%

I would like to know your impression, even if you are not very sure about it. It is your impression that more countries in the world are more sympathetic to the Israeli or the Palestinian position, or is it roughly balanced? (PIPA, May 8, 2002)

Israeli position 22%
Palestinian position 27%
Balanced 39%
Don't know 12%

Thinking now about American Jewish leaders, when it comes to influencing U.S. policy toward Israel and the Middle East, do you think they have too much influence, too little influence, or about the right amount of influence over U.S. policy? (ADL, April 26-May 6, 2002)

 
2002
1998
1992
Too much 21% 22% 37%
Too little 11% 5% 8%
About right amount 53% 53% 41%

Some have argued that the U.S. should take military action in Iraq against Saddam Hussein -- even if the U.S. has to act alone and even if it takes the lives of thousands of U.S. troops.
Others say that the U.S. should not attack Iraq on its own, because an independent U.S. invasion would provoke intense anti-American reaction throughout the Arab world and in much of Europe. They argue that any attack on Iraq must not take place without the support of key European and Arab allies.
Still others say we should take no action.
Which of these three opinions is closest to your own view? (ADL, April 26-May 6, 2002)

 
2002
Act alone 16%
Support of allies 57%
Take no action 21%

How likely do you think it is that each of the following will happen in the next? (Gallup/CNN/USA Today, April 5-7)

 
Very Likely
Somewhat Likely
Not Too/Not at all Likely
U.S. troops will be put into combat situations in the Middle East 41% 40% 17%
A war will break out in the Middle East between Israel and Arab countries 39% 43% 16%
Suicide bombers will attack the U.S. as a direct result of the current violence in the Middle East 27% 43% 28%
Arab countries will impose an oil embargo against the U.S. 25% 41% 32%
Important U.S. allies in the war on terrorism will withdraw their support for the U.S. 16% 42% 41%

Would you favor or oppose sending U.S. ground troops to invade Iraq? (Gallup/CNN/USA Today)

  4/5-7/02 3/22-24/02
Favor 47% 46%
Oppose 46% 50%
No Opinion 7% 4%

Would you favor or oppose sending U.S. ground troops to invade Iraq in order to remove Saddam Hussein from power? (Gallup/CNN/USA Today)

  4/5-7/02
Favor 69%
Oppose 36%
No Opinion 5%

As far as you are concerned, should the removal of Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq be a very important foreign policy goal of the U.S., a somewhat important goal, not too important, or not an important goal at all? (Gallup/CNN/USA Today)

  4/5-7/02 3/22-24/02
Very important 46% 60%
Somewhat important 38% 28%
Not too important 10% 6%
Not important at all 6% 5%
No Opinion 1% 1%

In your view, which is more important - relations between the US and Israel or between the US and the Arab Nations? (Zogby International, April 2-4, 2002)

Relations between US and Israel 33%
Relations between US and Arab Nations 24%
Relations with both 29%
NS 14%

Do you agree or disagree that the US is doing enough to improve its image among Arabs and Muslims around the world? (Zogby International, April 2-4, 2002)

Agree 46%
Disagree 44%
NS 10%

Do you agree or disagree that the US's interests and Israel's interests are identical? (Zogby International, April 2-4, 2002)

Agree 28%
Disagree 58%
NS 13%

Looking ahead, do you think there will still be a state of Israel in the Middle East 50 years from today, or not? Fifty years from today, do you think Israel will still be a Jewish state, OR that Israel will be a MIXED state in which the Palestinians have a major share of power? (Newsweek, March 21-22, 2002)

Yes, will exist 50 years from now 65%
Will still be a Jewish state 34%
Will be a mixed state 23%
Don't know what will be 8%
No, will not exist 18%
Don't know 17%

Whatever you think Israel's future will be, which of the following do you think SHOULD happen? Do you think...(Newsweek, March 21-22, 2002)

Israel should remain a Jewish state 42%
Israel should become a mixed state 38%
Israel should no longer exist as an independent country 6%
Don't know 14%

Please tell me if you think each of the following ha a major influence, a minor influence, or no influence on U.S. policy toward Israel today. (First,) what about... (Newsweek, March 21-22, 2002)

 
Major
Minor
None
DK
Our reliance on Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries in the Middle East for domestic oil supplies
63%  
21%
9%
7%
Lobbying and other political activism by Jewish Americans
35%
42%
11%
12%
The Bush Administration's desire to build support among Arab countries for military action against Iraq
52%
26%
10%
12%

Do you associate these statements with the United States and other Western nations?  (USA Today/CNN/Gallup poll, March 1-3, 2002, for U.S. data and 2002 Gallup Poll of the Islamic World for Islamic country data)

 
Take fair position in Palestine/Israel conflict
Respect Islamic views
USA
56%  
64%
Iran
7%
9%
Jordan
3%
14%
Kuwait
1%
5%
Lebanon
3%
10%
Pakistan
5%
18%
Saudi Arabia
6%
13%
Turkey
8%
21%

What is your opinion of Muslim countries?  (USA Today/CNN/Gallup poll, March 1-3, 2002)

Very/somewhat favorable 24%
Neither 33%
Very/somewhat unfavorable 41%

Do you think that U.S. support for friendly, but dictatorial governments in the region has an important effect in increasing support for Islamic extremists among the common people in these countries, or not? (Newsweek, December 6-7, 2001)

Yes 48%
No 30%
Don't know 22%

Do you think the U.S. should put more pressure on Middle East governments to allow for more democracy - even if it means Islamic extremists might win power? (Newsweek, December 6-7, 2001)

Yes 48%
No 40%
Don't know 12%

If Islamic extremists DO win power to run the government in their countries, how likely do you think it is that? (Newsweek, December 6-7, 2001)

a) Being responsible for people's welfare would make them more moderate and less prone to violence

Very 19%
Somewhat 33%
Not too 19%
Not at all 21%
Don't know 8%

b) This would lead to major reductions in human rights and civil liberties in these countries

Very 44%
Somewhat 32%
Not too 9%
Not at all 6%
Don't know 9%

c) Once in power, they would develop or obtain weapons of mass destruction

Very 47%
Somewhat 34%
Not too 8%
Not at all 5%
Don't know 6%

From what you know about Islam and its religious teachings, do you think the suicide bombings and other violence by some followers of Islam...(Newsweek, December 6-7, 2001)

Represent a perversion of Islam by extremists (or) 70%
Reflect an important part of Islam's teachings (or) 18%
Don't know 12%

Has the war on terrorism made you think that the United States' relations toward Israel should be closer, more distant, or stay the same? (Wall Street Journal/NBC News)

 
11/11/01
10/7/01
9/16/01
Closer
29%
30%
33% 
More distant
14%
13%
16%
Stay the same
48%
48%
42%
Not sure
9%
9%
9%

Do you think that a major cause of US (United States) problems in the Middle East today is that the United States has paid too much attention to Israel and not enough attention to the Arab countries, or don't you think so? (CBS/New York Times, Oct. 25-28, 2001)

Yes
39%
No
46%
DK/Refused
15%

Thinking about the Mideast situation these days, do you think the US (United States) should take Israel's side more, less, or about as much as it has in the past? (Pew Research Center, Council on Foreign Relations, Oct. 15-21, 2001)

More
16%
Less
19%
As much as in the past
56%
DK/Refused
9%

Now, I am going to read you a list of names. Will you please tell me if you have a favorable or unfavorable opinion of each person or organization? If you have no opinion or have never heard of the person, just say so. (New Atlantic Initiative/Chicago Sun Times, Oct. 15, 2001)

"ISRAEL"

Favorable
56%
Unfavorable
20%
No opinion/Never heard of
25%

Should the United States continue its support of Israel? (New Atlantic Initiative/Chicago Sun Times, Oct. 15, 2001)

Yes
73%
No
15%
DK/Refused
13%

Do you think the United States should increase its support for Israel, decrease its support for Israel, or keep it about the same? (ABC News, Oct. 8-9, 2001)

Increase
13%
Decrease
13%
Keep the same
68%
DK
6%

Thinking about United States policies in general in the Middle East, should the United States consider changing its policies in the Middle East to try to reducethe violent backlash against the United States or should the United States not consider such changes? (Newsweek, Oct. 4-5, 2001)

Should consider changing policies
46%
Should NOT consider changes
43%
Don't Know/Refused
11%

Is your overall opinion of ___ very favorable, mostly favorable, mostly unfavorable, or very unfavorable? (Gallup, Feb. 2001)

 
Total Favorable
Total Unfavorable
Canada
90%
7%
Australia
85%
8%
Great Britain
85%
9%
Italy
78%
12%
France
77%
17%
Germany
75%
16%
Japan
73%
21%
Brazil
69%
17%
Mexico
67%
26%
Egypt
65%
23%
Israel
63%
32%
The Philippines
63%
25%
Taiwan
63%
22%
India
58%
30%
South Africa
57%
33%
Russia
52%
42%
Saudi Arabia
47%
46%
Vietnam
46%
44%
China
45%
48%
North Korea
31%
59%
Colombia
30%
59%
Cuba
27%
68%
The Palestine Authority
22%
63%
Iran
12%
83%
Libya
11%
75%
Iraq
9%
85%

Israel. Are you familiar with this country? (The Mellman Group, August 2001)

Yes
77%
No
22%
Don't Know/Refused
1%

Are you familiar toward this country [Israel], somehow favorable, somewhat unfavorable or very unfavorable toward it? (The Mellman Group, August 2001)

Very Favorable
25%
Somehow Favorable
45%
Somewhat Unfavorable
9%
Very Unfavorable
4%
Don't Know/Refused
17%

In your opinion, what is the most important foreign policy problem that the new U.S. administration will have to deal with? (Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

 
General 
Public
Elites
American Jews 
  Influential Americans
AIDS 
3%  
1%
<1% 
1%
China 
6% 
7% 
4% 
6%
Global trade 
3% 
4% 
3% 
4%
Human rights 
2% 
2% 
2% 
<1%
Immigration  
2%
<1% 
<1% 
<1%
International drug trade 
2% 
<1% 
1% 
<1%
Israel/Palestinians 
12% 
15% 
17%
8%
Iraq/Saddam Hussein 
6% 
3%
 4% 
1%
Middle East peace  
25%
30%  
41%
36%
Nuclear weapons/Rogue countries    
2%
6%
2%
8%
Poverty
 1% 
2% 
1% 
0%
Russia  
1%  
2%
1%
3%
Serbia/Kosovo/Balkans  
1%
<1% 
<1% 
0%
Terrorism 
3% 
4% 
4% 
7%
Third World Poverty 
2% 
2% 
1% 
1%
Other   
7%
10%
5% 
13%
Don't Know / No Response  
14%
6% 
12% 
2%
OPEC / Gas / Oil / Energy 
4% 
3%  
1%
3%
War / World peace 
1% 
1%
 1% 
<1%
Domestic issues (specific)  
4%
2% 
2% 
1%
National defense / Missile defense 
0% 
0% 
<1% 
3%
Military / Declining military  
0% 
0%
0% 
1%
Our role as peacekeeper   
0%
0%
<1% 
2%


ISRAEL
Are you familiar with this country? 
IF YES: Are you very favorable toward this country, somewhat favorable, somewhat unfavorable, or very unfavorable toward it?
(Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

 
General 
Public
Elites
American Jews 
  Influential Americans
Unfamiliar 
10% 
6%
 5%
 0%
Very favorable
29%
  30%
 54%
 0%
Somewhat favorable
 38%
45%
  30%
 0%
Somewhat unfavorable
12% 
10%
 4%
0%
Very unfavorable
7% 
5%
 2%
  0%
don't know
5%
3%
6%
 0%


IF ANSWER CHOICE IS 2 OR 3: Why?

 
General 
Public
Elites
American Jews 
  Influential Americans
Religious beliefs / It is a godly country 
4%  
3%
1%
 0%
Biblical standpoint /The Bible says they are the chosen people  
3% 
1%
0% 
0%
I am Christian  
2% 
1%
 0%
0%
I am Jewish / It is the country of my homeland 
0%  
 3%
18%
0%
For the plight of the Jews / For the Jewish people / I have Jewish friends  
2% 
1%
2%
 0%
They have a right to the land / It is their homeland / The land was taken away from them and they should get it back
5%
4%
3%
 0%
Government / The way they operate / Their policies 
9%  
4% 
3%
0% 
Their democracy 
3%   
13%
11%
0%
They are our friends/ allies / We should support them 
14%  
13%
5% 
0%
Peaceful country / Always working for peace 
4%
 4%
 3% 
0%
Turmoil / They are having big problems / They have gone through a lot   
7%
6%
2% 
0%
From what I have heard/read 
2%
 1% 
1% 
0%
"General positive: Very favorable / I agree with them / I like them, etc."   
8%
8%
7% 
0%
I agree with points on both sides / They need to both learn to get along
1%
4%
0%
0%
"Some things are good/right, others are not (specific and unspecific) / The Israeli's are not doing everything right" 
7% 
11% 
4% 
0%
No particular reason / I am very/somewhat favorable toward it 
9%  
9%
4% 
0%
Others 
9% 
11%  
16%
0%
Don't Know / No Response 
 11%
4%  
6%
0%
I am a citizen / I have family in Israel
 0%  
0%
5% 
0%
The elections / The new Prime Minister  
0%
0%
 7%
0%


IF ANSWER CHOICE IS 4 OR 5: Why?

  General 
Public
Elites American Jews    Influential Americans
Their government / Their politics / The way they handle things 
17%  
16%
21%
0%
War / They are always fighting 
10% 
10% 
0%
 0%
Too aggressive
 7% 
0% 
0% 
0%
Not making progress/ trying hard enough for peace  
3%
6% 
17% 
0%
They get money from us already 
6% 
3% 
0% 
0%
The way they are towards the U.S.   
5%
10%
 0%
0%
The Palestinian/Arab people / The way they treat the Palestinians / Arabs 
4%  
13%
8%
0%
Do not trust them / Do not think they are forthcoming / They are a threat 
3%  
0%
4% 
0%
The way they treat their people 
3% 
3%  
0%
0%
Problems / Many problems / Causing problems 
4% 
3% 
0% 
0%
The things that are going on 
6% 
6%  
0%
0%
"Foreign countries / Every time a foreign country is in trouble, we have to get involved / They need to take care of their own problems"
 5% 
0% 
0% 
0% 
From what I have heard/read  
3%
0%  
0%
0%
No particular reason / I am somewhat / very unfavorable toward it 
3% 
10% 
8% 
0%
Others 
13% 
16%  
29%
0%
Don't Know / No Response   
 9%
3%
13%
0%


JORDAN
Are you familiar with this country? 
IF YES: Are you very favorable toward this country, somewhat favorable, somewhat unfavorable, or very unfavorable toward it?
(Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

 
General 
Public
Elites
American Jews 
  Influential Americans
Unfamiliar 
25%  
16%
8% 
0%
Very favorable  
11%
17%  
14%
0%
Somewhat favorable   
35%
48%
44% 
0%
Somewhat unfavorable 
11% 
12%  
14%
0%
Very unfavorable 
4% 
1% 
8% 
0%
Don't know 
13%  
7%
12% 
0%

EGYPT
Are you familiar with this country? 
IF YES: Are you very favorable toward this country, somewhat favorable, somewhat unfavorable, or very unfavorable toward it?
(Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

 
General 
Public
Elites
American Jews 
  Influential Americans
Unfamiliar 
24%   
9%
8%
0%
Very favorable  
13%  
14%
11% 
0%
Somewhat favorable   
46%  
62% 
52%
0%
Somewhat unfavorable 
6% 
6% 
20% 
0%
Very unfavorable 
4%   
2%
4%
0%
Don't know 
8%   
7%
4%
0%


Have you ever been to Israel? (Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

 
General 
Public
Elites
American Jews 
  Influential Americans
No   
96%
80%
57% 
0%
Yes-once 
3%  
13% 
23%
0%
Yes--more than once 
1% 
7% 
21% 
0%
Don't know 
0% 
0% 
0% 
0%


How closely would you say you follow news from the Middle East - 
very closely, somewhat closely, not very closely or not at all closely?
(Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

 
General 
Public
Elites
American Jews 
  Influential Americans
Very closely 
19% 
29% 
44% 
28%
Somewhat closely 
55% 
58%  
45%
62%
Not very closely 
18% 
12% 
9% 
10%
Not at all closely 
7%
 1% 
2% 
0%
Don't know  
<1%
0% 
0% 
0%


The United States has a special relationship with Israel because the two countries share many common values, including a commitment to freedom and democracy. Do you strongly agree with this statement, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with this statement? (Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

  General 
Public
Elites American Jews    Influential Americans
Strongly agree   
41%   
50%
75%
0%
Somewhat agree 
42%  
33%
20%
 0%
Somewhat disagree 
8%   
8%
3%
0%
Strongly disagree  
 7%   
6%
3%
0%
Don't know  
2%   
3%
0%
0%

The U.S. should continue to play a strong role in mediating the conflict in the Middle East.
Do you strongly agree with this statement, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with this statement?
(Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

  General 
Public
Elites American Jews    Influential Americans
Strongly agree   
46%  
53% 
57%
0%
Somewhat agree 
32%   
26%
27%
0%
Somewhat disagree 
12%   
8%
9%
0%
Strongly disagree  
10%   
11%
5%
0%
Don't know  
<1%   
2%
<1%
0%


Israel is a small country surrounded by enemies, and the United States should defend the country when it needs us.
Do you strongly agree with this statement, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with this statement?
(Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

  General 
Public
Elites American Jews    Influential Americans
Strongly agree   
36%   
28%
63%
0%
Somewhat agree 
29%  
35%
22%
 0%
Somewhat disagree 
18%   
23%
7%
0%
Strongly disagree  
13%   
9%
5%
0%
Don't know  
 4%  
5%
1% 
0%


In thinking about Israel's relationship with the United States, which of the following is best reason for the U.S. to maintain close relations (Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

  General
Public
Elites American Jews   Influential Americans
The democratic tradition the two countries share
20% 
23%
32%
0%
The Judeo-Christian values the two countries share
24% 
18%
5%
0%
Israel's longtime role as a strategic partner in a tense, but vital part of the world
42% 
52%
61%
 0%
Don't know
14%
7%
2%
0%


What is your main source of information about the situation in Israel? (Penn, Schoen & Berland Inc., and First International Resources Inc., January 25 and February 17, 2001)

  General
Public
Elites American Jews   Influential Americans
Television
 60%
 37%
37%
0%
Newspapers
20%
38%
35%
 0%
Radio
7% 
7%
6%
0%
Internet
4%
2%
8%
0%
Word of Mouth
2%
1%
 4%
0%
Others
1%
4%
 2%
0%
Don't Know / No Response
4%
6%
5%
0%
All of the above
1%
3%
3%
0%
Magazines
 <1%
2%
0%
0%
 

How important do you think what happens in each of the following areas of the world is to the United States today -- would you say it is vitally important, important but not vital, not too important, or not at all important? How about what happens in the Middle East? (Gallup, May 21, 2000)

Vitally important
53%
Important but not vital
34%
Not too important
6%
Not at all important
4%
No opinion
3%

How important are relations with... Israel ...to the US (United States) national interest--extremely important, fairly important, just somewhat important, or not important at all? (Hart And Teeter Research Companies / NBC News, Wall Street Journal, July 24-26, 1999)

Extremely important
33%
Fairly important
26%
Just somewhat important
25%
Not important at all
9%
Not sure
7%

Many people believe that the United States has a vital interest in certain areas of the world and not in other areas. That is, certain countries of the world are important to the US for political, economic, or security reasons. I am going to read a list of countries. For each, tell me whether you feel the US has a very strong vital interest, a fairly strong vital interest, not much of a vital interest, or no vital interest at all in that country... Israel? (Potomac Associates And Opinion Dynamics / Henry Luce Foundation, June 16-28, 1999)

Very strong vital interest
40%
Fairly strong
36%
Not much
11%
None
10%
DK
3%

Many people believe that the United States has a vital interest in certain areas of the world and not in other areas. That is, certain countries of the world are important to the US for political, economic or security reasons. I am going to read you a list of countries. For each, tell me whether you feel the US does or does not have a vital interest in that country.)... Israel (*Gallup/CCFR)

Many people believe that the United States has a vital interest in certain areas of the world and not in other areas. That is, certain countries of the world are important to the US for political, economic, or security reasons. Do you feel the US does or does not have a vital interest in Israel? (**Gallup/CNN/USA Today) (+NYT)

 
Has vital interest
Does not have a vital interest
DK/Refused
12/12/99**
69%
27%
4%
11/10/98*
69%
22%
9%
04/20/98+
76%
15%
9%
10/25/94*
64%
22%
14%
11/15/90*
67%
20%
13%
11/12/86*
76%
11%
13%

Has the Eichmann trial made you feel more sympathetic or less sympathetic towards...Israel and the Jewish people? (Gallup, 6/21/1961)

More
34%
Less
5%
No difference
44%
No opinion
18%

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