Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict, UNRWA (United Nations Relief & Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East) was established by United Nations General Assembly resolution 302 (IV) of December 8, 1949, to carry out direct relief and works programs for Palestinian refugees.
The Agency began operations on May 1, 1950. Originally envisaged as a temporary organisation, in the absence of a solution to the Palestinian refugee problem the General Assembly has repeatedly renewed UNRWA's mandate.
UNRWA provides education, health, relief and social services to eligible refugees among the 4.8 million registered Palestinian refugees in its five fields of operations in Jordan, Lebanon, the Gaza Strip, the Syrian Arab Republic and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. More than 1.4 million refugees, around one third of the total, live in 58 recognised camps, and UNRWA's services are located in or near these areas.
UNRWA is unique because of its responsibility and committment to just one group of refugees, whereas all other refugee populations around the world fall under the jurisdiction of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
UNRWA is funded almost entirely by voluntary contributions from UN member states. The United States was the largest single donor to UNRWA in 2011, according to the organization’s website, with a total contribution of over $240 million, followed by the European Commission’s $175 million. These two sources accounted for about 42 per cent UNRWA’s income for its core program budget.
Unlike other United Nations organisations that work through local authorities or executing agencies, UNRWA provides its services directly to Palestinian refugees. It plans and carries out its own activities and projects, and builds and administers facilities such as schools and clinics. The Agency currently operates or sponsors over 900 installations with nearly 30,000 staff across the five fields. Because UNRWA services such as education and healthcare are the type of services normally provided within the public sector, the Agency cooperates closely with governmental authorities in the area of operations, who also provide some services to Palestinian refugees.
Despite its stated objective to bring protection for Palestinian refugees and build peace, UNRWA has repeatedly come under heavy fire for promoting or sponsoring anti-Israel events within its facilities. In 2013, video footage entitled "Camp Jihad" showed UNRWA summer camps inciting hostility to Israel among young Palestinians. “We teach the culture of the Nakba to campers,” emphasized Nasrin Bisharat, an UNRWA social worker at the Balata camp, in the video. “We try, on days like Nakba Day, to commemorate the Nakba in the school.”
In response, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu made the following remarks before a meeting with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon: